Typical Jewish Cycle
In the Jewish tradition, the history of the people and religion is inextricably linked and equally revered. Most of the holidays are based on the events described in the Holy Books. There are special dates of the calendar - mourning - to commemorate the tragic turns of Jewish history. Certain customs are connected with each holiday or tragic date.
Both festive and mourning dates are indicated by the Jewish calendar, the structure of which is due to the requirements of the Torah. This moon-sun calendar is based on special calculations. The beginning of the months in it coincides with the new moon. Thus, it turns out that the month is 29-30 days.
The year, compiled from such months, "lags behind" from "Sunny" about 12 days, and according to the Jewish tradition, all significant dates should always be on the seasons appointed for them. Therefore, in 7 years from the 19-year-old cycle, an additional month is introduced, the name of the second adar (ADAR Sheny, or Adar Beth). It is inserted before the month of adar, which thus becomes the 13th month, and always consists of 29 days.
In addition, the beginning of the year cannot be on Sunday, Wednesday or Friday, it moves it to one or even two days.
Four new years
Another feature of the Jewish calendar is that it has as many as four new years, and none of them falls on the first January. The fact is that during the time preceding the scattering of the Jewish people, there were several arbitrary cycles for all the people, the countdown of which began on certain dates. The rules establishing these cycles have gained the status of the commandments over time. There were 4 such cycles and, therefore, four new years:
Symbols of the New Year - Rosh A-Shan (Photo: Elzbieta Sekowska, Shutterstock) 1 Nisana Starts counting months. 1st month - Nisan, 2nd - Iyar, etc. In addition, this date is a new year to refer to the reign of the kings: if, for example, a certain king began to reign, say, in Adara, then from 1 nisan, the 2nd year of his reign begins. Therefore, from 1 Nisan - the new year for the reference of months and everything that is associated with the Jewish kings.
In the same time, the temple, every Jew had to separate the tenth of his cattle to eat it in Jerusalem. Counting the year during which it was necessary to separate this tithe, began 1 Elula .
15 Swat. - This is the new year for trees, the beginning of the reference of the crop of trees to separate the tithe from him.
1 Tishrey - This is a new year for the account of years from the creation of the world and for the Creator Court over all people and countries.
In addition to significant dates, noted only once a year, in the Jewish tradition, the date of the holiday also has dates related to shorter temporary intervals - month and week. In other words, in the Jewish tradition, every new month (Rosh Hades) and the end of each week (Saturday, Sabbath) are also holidays.
Chief His Holiday
Saturday Candles, Hala, Wine (Photo: Lisa F. Young, Shutterstock)
The cessation of everyday, everyday work in the seventh day of the week is one of the main commandments of the Old Testament, which says: "Remember the day of Sabbath and His: Six days work and complete our deeds, and in the seventh - do everything for God only for God." Therefore, the main holiday of the Jewish year is every week.
Some scientists believe that the origin of the holiday is in close connection with the sacred number "Seven" (Sheva). With deep ancient times the magic of numbers was widespread in many nations of the East. The number "Seven" (as well as to him) in the Middle East, including the Jews, was considered happy, was an expression of completeness, completion. That is Saturday Year (Shemite) - every seventh year, during which the debts should be forgotten and giving a lot of rest. After seven seven years old - 49 years old - the anniversary year (Yovel) came, when he should have released slaves to the will and return land sections selected for debts. Seven days had to celebrate the holidays of fresh bread and Sukkot, seven weeks were divided by the holidays of Peachs and Shavuck, in the sky, the ancient Jews numbered seven planets, etc.
The instructions of the Torah allocate Saturday as a special day can be divided into two types. The first connects Saturday with the creation of the world: after six days of creation, Saturday came - and the Creator himself stopped. Those. Compliance with Saturday is a sign of recognizing that God created the world, and that this world is under constant divine management. (Genesis 2: 2): "And God graduated on the day of the seventh work, which he did, and rested (" Vaisbot "- from here" Shabat "-" peace ") on the day of the seventh of all his work he did. And God blessed the day of the seventh and consecrated him, for he is Saturday ("peace") from any productive work, and God created, making peace. "
The second type of instructions resembles the exit from Egypt: this event turned the Jew-slave in a free person; So Saturday frees the Jew from slavery everyday life. "Don't do any work, nor the slave is yours to resist your slave and the slave of yours, like you, and remember that the slave was you in the Egyptian land, but the Lord, God, brought you away from there with a mouthpiece and most muscle, because And the Lord commanded you, your God, set the day of the Sabbath. " Thus, the first passage indicates the universal significance of the Sabbath, which all humanity should be remembered, and the second is on his national importance, about the covenant between a person and God.
Special attitude to Saturday is emphasized by the fact that the most stringent restrictions on the work accounts for Saturday - the tradition prohibits producing "everyday" actions on Saturday, which violates the festivity to Saturday. This actions include all associated with money calculations and daily work (up to cooking), as well as all conversations on the "everyday" topics. In the case of a coincidence of Saturday with other festive dates of the Jewish calendar, the order of festive prayers changes "to the side" of Saturday, and posts (except for Yom Kipura) are transferred to another day. And, in addition, the whole Torah is divided into weekly chapters, which are read by all Jews on Saturdays, so that the Sabbath is the points of "alignment" of the entire Jewish people in the study of the Torah.
The Celebration of Saturday includes the implementation of the prescriptions of the Torah and sages associated with consecration, the separation of this day. Some of these prescriptions have a specific expression: candles are lit before Saturday, pronouncing a special blessing; Three festive meals are arranged on Saturday, and the first two of them begin with a special prayer - Kiddush, i.e. Saturday sanctity over a glass of wine. Other prescriptions are aimed at creating a special festive atmosphere: people put on beautiful clothes, the family is going together for a festively covered table, eat delicious food, drink wine.
Saturday enters the Jewish house at the moment of ignition of Saturday candles. In the evening on Friday, it is necessary before the sunset, the hostess of the house lights the Sabbath candles and pronounces a blessing on the ignition of the candles. After that, it is believed that Saturday began.
The first day of the month (or the last day of the previous month, if it consisted of 30 days) - Rosh Hades - a semi-country day in the Jewish calendar. The consecration of Rosh Hades is the basis of all holidays of the Jewish calendar and related commandments, since the dates of all other holidays depend on the proper establishment of Rosh Kohdash.
Before the destruction of the second temple, the beginning of the month on the basis of the testimony of witnesses who saw the young month with their own eyes, installed and sanctified a special judiciary, Santedery. In those days, this day was celebrated, like other holidays: in a family circle, with a feast, in festive clothes, etc. Apparently, the tradition of such a meal comes from the usual to treat witnesses who came to Sanheads to report on the appearance of a new moon. Rosh Hades was the day when it was customary to visit the famous prophet and ask him about the fate of the people of Israel and about personal problems. In the temple on this day a special service was held, accompanied by a pipeline in pipes and sacrifices.
Today, the beginning of the month is not accompanied by the festival, which was once accepted. This is partly due to the fact that today the Jewish calendar is not established on the testimony of witnesses. Nevertheless, this day and today some properties of holidays are distributed. Although the tradition does not prohibit work on this day, there is a custom that does not recommend women to perform work that can be transferred the other day. This custom is associated with the legend of the worship of the Golden Taurus. It is written in the Pirkie de Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 45): "When the men asked for golden decorations in women, to cast the Golden Taurus, they refused to give them away and did not obey men. For this Most High gave them in this world, and in the future. In this - the commandment of the new month, in the future, the fact that their beauty will be updated like a young month. "
In the book of the Prophet Isaiah, the meaning of Rosh Hades in the future - during the Messianic Kingdom, when the Messiah himself will rule from Jerusalem, from the throne Davidov, people will come from all sides to worship him. Thus, Rosh Hades will be a special day of worship. Apparently, this prophecy also defines the festive character of the new month in tradition.
Categories of Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays distinguishes not only a ritual strictly installed for each holiday, which allows you to recreate the events that have the basis of the holiday, but also a special attitude to work. Every job is prohibited in the holiday. The holiday was always opposed to weekdays, daily everyday classes. His characteristic feature is "Lurence" (in the sense of the imperfect of ordinary classes).
Based on this, Jewish holidays can be divided into the following categories:
Easter Seder (Photo: Noam Armonn, Shutterstock)
1. Shabby (Saturday) and Yom Kipper (these days are completely forbidden to work).
2. Torah holidays (all work is prohibited, except cooking) - Rocha A-Shana, Pascha, Shavotuot, Sukkot, Shmini Azhet and Simkhat Torah. In the time of the temple, at least one of the three holidays of the year (Pesach, Shavuck and Sukkot), the Jew took a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
3. Semi-cubberries on the Torah (Hol ha-MoD): Intermediate days of the holidays of Pastes and Sukkot. You can only make such a job that is difficult to transfer to another time.
4. Rosh Hades - also not working better, as this holiday is also highlighted.
5. The "Holidays of Total Israel" installed by the prophets and wise men, the observance of which - the commandment: Purim and Hanukkah. It is not prohibited to work these days, but still do business is not recommended.
6. The "posts of Israel" installed by the prophets and wise men: 17 Tamuza, 9 Ava, the post of Gedalia, 10 Teveta, Taanit Esther.
7. The common holidays established by the prophets and wise men who do not have the status of the commandment. It is not prohibited to work (15 shvata, Lag Ba-Omer).
8. Universal memorable dates that have no special festive customs - the day of memory of Israel's heroes, Independence Day, Jerusalem Day, Yom A-sho.
Basic features of Jewish holidays
For Jewish holidays, you can highlight the following features:
1. Termination, prohibition of work. It is allowed, however, cook food (the latter does not apply to the Shabby and Yom Kipur).
2. Prescription "Have fun" (except for yom kipura and posts). On holidays do not respect mourning, and even seven-day mourning for the deceased tolerate for the next day.
3. Festive meal. The order of festive trapes is generally the same: first pronounced blessing over the wine (Kiddush), then the ritual ablution of the hands is performed, after which the blessing should be blessing and the trapes itself.
4. "Sacred Assembly", i.e. Meeting of all members of the community for committing festive ceremonies and worship.
5. Conducting the "Avdala" rite - the division of the holiday and everyday life.
6. All Jewish holidays start in the evening, with sunset, as it is believed that at this moment a new day is born.
In addition, for each holiday, distinctive rites and ceremony are characterized (and before the destruction of the temple in the 70 year - sacrifices that have been canceled after this). In principle, all named features are not something specific inherent only to Jewish holidays. The cheerful character of the holiday, the device of festive peters, certain rituals, stopping everyday occupation - all this in one way or another is characteristic of any holiday.
Another one of the distinguishing features of Jewish holidays, starting with the biblical era, was their mass, involvement in the festive action of all, without the difference in gender, age and social status. In the Old Testament, it is prescribed to celebrate and have fun to men and women, free and non-free, as well as the living "among the sons of Israel" to the ingenians.
The Wall is crying (photo: David Orcea, Shutterstock)
In Jewish history, there are four particularly sad dates associated with the destruction of the country, Jerusalem, the temple and the scattering of the Jewish people. These days are celebrated by post, special prayers and customs.
10th TEVET - the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem Nebuchadnezzar 17th Tamuza - the first break in the wall of Jerusalem 9th Ava - the date of the destruction of the temples, the first and second 3rd Tishrei - the post of Gedali - the murder of Gedalius, the last investigation of the destruction of the first temple - the full exile of the Jews From Israel.
Although posts and installed in the sign of grief engulfed Israel after the destruction of the temple, in memory of the torment suffered by Jews, but still grief is not the main content of these days. The main goal of posts is to awaken the heart and lay the way to repentance, remind of bad actions, about the events that led to misfortunes. Reflections about sins lead us to the right way. Public posts are established to ensure that the Jewish people awake for repentance, remembering. For misfortunes to stop, each person should think about his actions, to realize and repent.
When drawing up a section, site information was used www.jewish.ru, Toldot.ru, MJCC.ru, evrey.com, www.machanaim.org, israelinfo.ru
In Israel, as in any other country, there is a list of their own holidays, which are noted at the state level. All of them 7. This number includes both religious and national solemn dates. All of them are related to the most important events for the Jews who are decisive for the existence of a nation. Traditionally, their celebration is made according to the Jewish calendar, in which the phases of the Moon play a decisive role, therefore, for people living in the European Gregorian calendar, it seems somewhat strange that the dates of celebrations are floating. However, for Israelis is a normal practice.
Rosh A-SchanaRosh A-Schana
- The first year of the holiday, the Jewish New Year, celebrated at the beginning of the autumn month of the Tishre. Another paradox of the Jewish calendar. Despite the fact that the name of the holiday is translated as the "Head of the Year", he has to go to the seventh month. It happened because the new year of the Jews was noted in the spring month of Aviv, later renamed Nisan. But be that as it may be every 1 and 2 number of the month of the Jews, the start of the next year is celebrated. These days, they are reported to Most High about their acts for the year. On the first evening, Rosh A-Shana is accepted to desire each other to be inscribed in the "Book of Life". During the meal, it is customary to the hut (or bread) in Honey, so that the coming year was sweet. More modern custom There are apples with honey. On the holiday, it is customary to wear white clothes that serve as a symbol of purity, and spread a lot of sweet dishes on the tables for further well-being. In addition to cooking, the rest of the work is prohibited.
When Rosh A-Shan in 2019 - the beginning on the evening of September 29. When Rosh A-Shan in 2020 is the beginning on the evening of September 18. When Rosh A-Shan in 2021 - the beginning of September 6th. When Rosh A-Shan in 2022 - the beginning on the evening of September 25.
Yom-Kipur, or the Day of Atonement, is among the most important holidays of Judaism. It reminds of days more than three thousand years old, when the Jews are in the Sinai Desert committed a huge mistake, starting to worship the Golden Taurus. Yom-Kipuro comes 10 days after the start of Roche A-Shan, on the 10th day of the month of the Tishrey. At this time, Israel's life for a day completely subsides. Even flights are canceled, and there are no cars on the roads. Jews are immersed in tense expectation, because during this period the Most High makes his sentence. But although Yom-Kippur lasts only one day, the preparation for him begins, barely ends with Rosh A-Shan. All days before this holiday, the Jews should be repent of their non-departure deeds, words and even thoughts before the top of the fate. Yom-Kipur is absolutely forbidden to eat food and drink.
When Yom-Kippur in 2019 - the beginning of October 8. When Yom-Kippur in 2020 - the beginning on the evening of September 27. When Yom-Kippur in 2021 - the beginning on the evening of September 15. When Yom-Kippur in 2022 - the beginning of October 4th.
(feast) is one of the longest, continuing for seven days. He is devoted to the memory of ancestors who left the non-microgenic Egypt and the continuation of the 40 years of those who walked along the Sinai Desert. Its name comes from the word "Sukka", denoting chalas or tent. It was in such adaptations that I had to spend the night with Jews who walked around the desert. The beginning of the holiday falls on the 15th day of the month of the Tishre, and it lasts in continuation of the week. In order to fully note the celebration, the Jews must build a salash-succulent and acquire citrus fruit. Erog, palm leaves, sprigs of the Mirtit and IV branches. Everything you need to buy in special bazaars suitable before the holiday. It is believed that the whole festive period of the Jews should eat and spend the night in a halate, but the times are changing and now, most often, in the ever lunch.
When Sukkot in 2019 is the beginning of October 13. When Sukkot in 2020 is the beginning of October 2. When Sukkot in 2021 is the beginning on the evening of September 21. When Sukkot in 2022 is the beginning on the evening of October 10.
Hanukkah - the largest duration of the Jewish holiday dedicated to the purification of the Jerusalem Temple and the resumption of services in it after the expulsion of the Greco-Syrian troops in 165 BC. It begins 25 sour, and only 2-3 teuts ends. According to the generally accepted calendar, the period of the celebration of Hanukkah falls for December. The symbol of the celebration is the Hanukkah lamps, which are allowed to light solely during this period according to the special ceremony. The most joyful Hanukkah is for children, because for them there is a lot of sweets, gifts are given.
When Hanukkah in 2019 - the beginning on the evening of December 22. When Hanukkah in 2020 - origin on the evening of December 10th. When Hanukkah in 2021 - origin on November 28. When Hanukkah in 2022 - origin on the evening of December 18.
Purim is a three-day Spring Masquerade. He begins on the 13th day of the month of Adar, the so-called post Esther, ending the 15th day. The name is consonant with the word "Pur" denoting the concept of "lot". The holiday is dedicated to the happy relief of the Jews from the death of the death of the ancient Persia who pretended to them on the lands of the ancient Persia Aman-Amalikiyanin. The terrible tragedy did not occur only thanks to the dedication and courage of the wife of Artserks, the Jewish Esther and her cousin Mordeha. The instigator himself was punished by the Aman-Amalkin's possible tragedy. During the celebration of Purim, the Scroll of Esther, and women participate in the hearings on a par with men. Services in the synagogues are taking place on a not quite ordinary scenario: at the moments of mentioning the name of the insidious Vizier, all those present begin to publish loud sounds and crack graggers, special Purim rattles, as a sign of contempt for a terrible villain. On this day you need to get drunk so as not to distinguish your friend from the enemy.
When Purim in 2020 is the beginning of March 9 in the evening. When Purim in 2021 - the beginning on the evening of February 25. When Purim in 2022 is the beginning of March 16.
Pesach is the brightest Jewish holiday. In Israel, his celebration occurs in the continuation of 7 days (outside Israel 8). The word "paces" denotes the concept of "passed by", which leads to the biblical history about the last of the executions of the Egyptian, after which the Jewish people were able to free themselves from slavery. Start Pesha - 14 Nisan Spring Month day. The central event of the holiday is the Easter evening Seder-Pesach. Its carrying out is carefully regulated by a multitude of mandatory elements. In particular, the reading of Easter Aggada is unchanged, which tells about the Jewish outcome from Egypt. Also on the table is prohibited for the appearance of products that are even the slightest fermentation. Instead of bread, matza is served - fresh pellets, the whole process of manufacture which takes no more than 18 minutes.
When Pesach in 2020 - the beginning of the evening on April 8. When Pesach in 2021 - the beginning on the evening of March 26. When Pesach in 2022 - origin on the evening of April 15th.
Yom A-Azmaut is the most important national holiday, the Independence Day of Israel. Its indicative date is 5 Iyar for the Jewish calendar. However, in some cases, this number can be shifted, since the celebration should take place only in the days of the middle of the week: Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Officially, this holiday began to be celebrated since 1949 after the adoption of the Knesset of the relevant law. The Independence Day of Israel is definitely preceded by the commemoration day. People remember the wrestlers who fell in battles for the independence of the country, as well as citizens who died from terrorist acts. In Yom A-Azmaut, people post the Israel flags at home and cars, wear clothes with Israel characters. Going out on nature and make meat on fire. At the end of the day, a festive firework is made.
When Yom A-Azmaut in 2020 - the beginning of April 28. When Yom A-Azmaut in 2021 - the beginning of April 13th.