As a rule, a high temperature accompanies inflammatory diseases, but is not the only sign of the alend. In the flu breaks, weakness appears, the throat hurts with an angina, and if the problem with the gastrointestinal tract is nausea and vomiting. It is much more difficult about the case with the so-called subfebrile temperature, which fluctuates from 37 to 38 degrees and keeps more than a day. What this may indicate, tells the doctor of the general practice of the medical center "Panorama Honey" Artem Vladimirovich Antsiferov.
First of all, it is necessary to understand that an increase in temperature is not a disease, but a protective response of an organism for inflammation or infection. We produce certain substances that accelerate blood flow through vessels, immunity on their own forces trying to eliminate pathogenic bacteria or microorganisms. That is why the doctors recommend not to knock down the temperature with medicines, especially if it is low, but to treat the ailment, which caused a fever.
However, in some cases, high temperature may be dangerous to health. This is, above all, heart disease, hypertension, not purchased by drugs. In these cases, taking the antipyretic drug necessarily.
It happens that the temperature rises, and there is no typical signs of the disease. The reasons may be the same Orz, which flows with erased symptoms, gastritis and enteritis, whose symptoms may appear a little later, namely, nausea, diarrhea and discomfort in the stomach, inflammatory diseases of the joints.
Sometimes the temperature rises as a result of strong psycho-emotional overvoltage, and, as a subsequent reaction to stress. In this case, it can be accompanied by weakness and apathy.
Subfebrile temperature can be observed during pregnancy, then this is the option of the norm. And for some people, a slightly elevated body temperature is an absolute norm, this fact is usually known for them from early childhood.
If the elevated temperature holds for more than a week, this is a serious reason to appeal to the doctor. After a conversation with a patient and studying the clinical picture, the doctor may suspect one of the diseases - tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, melting invasions, viral hepatitis, thyroid disease, autoimmune pathology, which can also be the cause of long-rate fever. The clinic has the opportunity to make laboratory studies on any infections and diseases, to obtain advice of narrow-profile specialists and implement ultrasound, x-ray and other types of research.
Increased body temperature in itself is a symptom, that is, a sign of a disease. As for manifestations, which usually accompany hyperthermia, then among them you can allocate the following:
- feeling of lobs in muscles and joints;
- Hypersensitivity (tactile, light, sometimes - olfactory);
- general weakness;
- decline in appetite;
- irritable mucous membranes;
- deterioration concentration.
The severity of these symptoms is largely depends on the degree of severity of hyperthermia. Simply put, the higher the temperature, the more listed symptoms will be accompanied and the stronger they will disturb the patient. However, one should not forget about individual tolerance. Some patients already at a temperature of 37.5 feel so bad that they are hard to find strength in order to get out of bed and make tea on their own. Others completely calmly transfer much higher temperature values, almost without losing appetite and ability to work.
Causes of high temperature
If the temperature rose, it is not always caused by the activity of pathogenic microorganisms. Hyperthermia may have purely physiological reasons: nervous voltage, physical exertion and overeating.
However, in most cases, the increase in temperature is still due to the immune response of the body. With infectious and inflammatory diseases, hyperthermia occurs as a protective reaction - by increasing the temperature, the body is trying to cope with bacteria and viruses.
Hyperthermia arises due to the activity of pyrogens. These are protein compounds indirectly affecting the temperature regulation center in the hypothalamus - a brain department responsible for many vital functions of the body. Pyrogens are divided into two groups:
- Primary (exogenous). As a rule, it is exotoxins - harmful products of the vital activity of bacteria and other microorganisms. This also includes antigens of various origins.
- Secondary (endogenous). Under the action of primary pyrogens, the internal protein structures involved in immunological reactions occur. This is secondary pyrogens, which in medicine is called cytokines. It is they activate a whole chain of reactions, as a result of which the hypothalamus receives a signal that it is time to increase body temperature and create conditions unsuitable for the comfortable existence of alien microorganisms.
In the conditions of elevated body temperature, many bacteria cease to function and multiply. However, on this protective effect of fever does not end: cytokines also stimulate the synthesis and bactericidality of leukocytes - blood cells that are responsible for the immune defense of the body.
The list of all sorts of diseases and pathological conditions in which the hyperthermia is celebrated is quite extensive, so here we will list only the most common of them.
The following diseases are most often the causes of temperature increase:
- Respiratory and focal - colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, flu, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis.
- Intestinal infections - dysentery, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, earsichiosis, rotaviruses, enteroviruses, cholera, botulism.
- Chronic infections: tuberculosis, syphilis, chronic tonsillitis.
- Complications in the treatment - postoperative period, reaction to vaccination, complications of antibiotics and other drugs.
- Oncological diseases - fibromes, adenoma, lymphoma, leukemia, etc.
The causes of temperature rise may also become autoimmune diseases, sepsis, injuries, wicked invasions, allergic reactions and hormonal imbalances.
Types of elevated body temperature
The classification of hyperthermia is carried out immediately in several criteria, but the most popular of them is the degree of severity according to the measurement results. Distinguish the following types:
- Subfebrile (up to 38 s). There are 2 subspecies.
- low subfebelitis (up to 37.5 s);
- High subfebelitis (37.6-38.0 s).
- Febrile (38.1 - 41.0 s). It is also divided into 2 subspecies:
- moderate (38.1 - 39.0 s);
- High (39.1 - 41.0 s).
- Hyperpiratory (over 41, 0 s).
Diagnostics - how to measure temperature correctly
There are several ways to measure the temperature, while each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. We will analyze them in more detail.
This is good to all familiar way, which involves measuring the temperature in the axillary depression. The indisputable plus is simplicity and convenience, the mines include errors (0.1-0.3 c) in comparison with more accurate ways. In addition, the temperature in different axillary depressures can be slightly different.
Temperature is measured in the rear pass. Most often applies in children under 4 years old, which are difficult to persuade calmly keep the thermometer under the arm in a few minutes. Formally, this method of temperature measurement is considered the most accurate.
However, there are a number of reservations. First, it is important to make amendment that in the rectum, the temperature is always slightly higher than in the armpit - the upper boundary of the norm is considered 37.7 C.
Secondly, the rectal temperature may vary depending on the source of the rectum by the carte masses. By the way, for most people, this method causes both aesthetic and physiological discomfort. If in the family there are convinced supporters of rectal measurement of temperature, it is desirable to have their own degrees, which after each use should be disinfected.
Measuring temperature is performed in the mouth, preferably under the language. Dignity - more accurate indicators in comparison with the axillary method. The disadvantage - the temperature of the food and liquid used on the eve of the measurement affect the temperature. It is also important not to open the mouth during the measurement - this is also reflected on the accuracy of the result.
There are some more less common ways to measure temperature:
- Liquid crystal thermography. It is based on the capture of thermal radiation using liquid crystals (contact method) and a mirror scanning system (remote method). As a result, a multicolored image is displayed on the screen, which is called thermoscopy - about so hostile aliens see people in fantastic films.
- Thermometry in the field of temporal artery. A new way that is considered the most accurate, but it has not yet been widespread, since infrared thermometers have not yet been firmly entered into our everyday life.
- Tympanic method. In Russian clinical practice is almost not used - this method is more popular in Germany. Measuring temperature is carried out in the exterior auditory passage area.
- Vaginal. We usually use women who cannot become pregnant - the temperature (ovulation) is determined by temperature fluctuations (ovulation).
What kind of thermometer is better to use
So far, mercury remains the most common type of thermometer. It gives more accurate results than electronic and does not need to change the batteries. However, in terms of security, he, to put it mildly, is not ideal. Mercury is very toxic, so if there is a small child or an elderly person in the house, which most often smashed thermal people, it is better to accept minimal deviations from the exact result and acquire an electronic analog. By the way, another disadvantage of mercury thermometer is too much measurement duration - on average about 10 minutes. The electronic thermometer copes with its task 3-4 times faster.
Infrared degrees are an excellent combination of accuracy of measurement and safety of use. Their only drawback is high cost, so many prefer to use cheaper options.
Really recently recently appeared Galin-mains thermometers - they are more affordable by price, and even exactly the accuracy of mercury. Galinistan is a mixture of low-toxic liquid metal, so in terms of safety here, too, everything is in order.
In what diseases there are high temperatures
About diseases under which there is an increase in body temperature, we told above. The table below lists the main groups of these pathologies with the average temperature range of temperature values.
|Group of diseases||Mining||Maximum|
|Autoimmune systemic diseases||37.0||38.0.|
The table indicates only the values associated with hyperthermia. However, in a number of observations (including during sepsis) there are exceptions when the temperature may not grow, and drop.
Why long the high temperature holds
In most observations, the temperature rises in response to the activity of alien microorganisms. Under a long-term increase in temperature, you can understand both hyperthermia, which is ongoing several days in acute cold or infectious diseases and chronic subfebilitation.
In the first case, the reason usually lies either in the difficult course of the disease, or in improper treatment, when the incorrect diagnosis does not allow to eliminate the cause of fever. If the patient normally transfers an increased temperature, it is better not to shoot down - it will help the body to cope with infection faster.
As for chronic subfebilite, when the temperature of 37-38 s holds for several weeks and longer, then such a state is due to the transition of an infectious disease from the acute phase into chronic. This often occurs as a result of improper treatment. For example, the patient is often not wanting to apply for a doctor's advice, follows the advice of acquaintances who recommend "proven" antibacterial or sulfonilandmid drugs. However, these drugs are often trite not to approach the patient according to the testimony. As a result, the disease briefly goes into remission so that in a short time to take a chronic course.
Important! If the temperature reaches the febrile values (38 s and above) and keeps more than 4 days, you should contact the infectious doctor.
Another common mistake in the treatment of infectious diseases is to stop taking antibiotics at the first signs of improvements, without bringing the course to the end. It also contributes to the chronicization of the disease, and can increase the antibiotic resistance of bacteria.
It should also be taken into account the possibility of developing diseases of the endocrine system and autoimmune pathologies. And sometimes a continuous increase in temperature may be caused by head injuries, as a result of which hypothalamus suffers.
Long hyperthermia in the range of 37-38 C is often noted in the case of herpesviruses that can be masked for other diseases (from respiratory to diseases of the central nervous system). The most famous representative of this group of diseases is the Epstein-Barr virus.
Chronic liver diseases, kidney and gastrointestinal tract with exacerbations can also give rise to temperature. In this case, they will be accompanied by symptoms characteristic of the disease that caused hyperthermia. For example, an increase in temperature when aggravating colitis will be accompanied by painful sensations in the abdomen, a sense of incomplete intestinal emptying, nausea and meteorism.
What should not be done at high temperatures
There are quite a lot of restrictions, and often they affect stereotypes established in home treatment for many years. These are the main mistakes:
- It should not be carried away by excessively fatty and acute foods - it increases the load on the digestive system, and this interferes with the body to deal with infection. Preference should be given to easily dishes. At the same time, food should not be too hot.
- It is important to avoid breast feeding, because at elevated temperatures, the proteins contained in milk thickens, which affects taste and digestibility.
- It is undesirable to drink sweet tea or coffee - a high level of glucose in the body suppresses the activity of leukocytes that ensure the operation of immunity. In addition, coffee enhances the dehydration of the body, which can aggravate the course of the disease.
- You can not soar legs or making hot inhalations and take baths. Such methods only stimulate blood circulation. And this will entail an even greater increase in temperature.
- Another popular variety of homegrown torture is warm off. Many parents still continue to cover children during fever in a few blankets, pre-laying paragraphs 3 and 4. There is an opinion that it is useful to "go sweat" with fever. In fact, the temperature rises even more by increasing the load on the cardiovascular system.
- From cold compresses, it is also better to refrain - they really help to reduce the temperature, but in itself a sharp cooling may entail an even greater weakening of immunity.
- Alcohol must be avoided. At elevated temperature, the patient takes medicines that increase the load on the liver. Alcohol, contrary to a breaking stereotype, does not exterminate microbes, but it has a hepatotoxic effect - it can only aggravate the course of the disease.
High temperature in a child
In the first months of life, the norm is considered an axillary temperature to 37.5 s (rectal - up to 38 s). In children under the age of 3 years, the upper limit of the norms consider the axillary temperature of 37.3 C. Doctors do not recommend churn the temperature in children if it does not exceed 38 C - the body must independently deal with infection. However, with poor tolerability or diseases of the heart or nervous system, it should still be used by antipyretic drugs.
High temperature in adult
As in children over 3 years, adults are considered to be high temperatures from 37 s and above. Some people can feel discomfort already when the temperature approaches the subfebrile mark (that is, about 36.8 c), however, this is not a reason for experiences - it is quite possible that such a state has become a consequence of overwork or nervous voltage.
In adults, it is recommended to shoot down the temperature only with testimony of 38.5 seconds, however, as in the case of children, much depends on the individual tolerability and the state of the body - it should be particularly careful to patients prone to convulsive syndrome. When the thermometer column approaches 39 s, the temperature should be confused without fail, since in this case the protective reaction itself becomes dangerous for the body - the blood coagulation increases, it thickens, and the heart becomes difficult to redistribute it to organs and tissues.
High temperature medication
Admitting drugs to eliminate high temperatures, the doctor must show the flexibility of therapeutic tactics, focusing primarily to eliminate the cause of fever, the overall condition of the patient and its portability of drugs. To reduce the temperature, apply:
- acetylsalicylic acid.
Based on these drugs, many medicines are manufactured with various commercial names.
Important! Children under 12 years old acetylsalicylic acid and sodium metamizole are contraindicated due to toxicity and negative impact on blood formation.
For a non-drug reduction temperature at home, you can use wosted by gauze or other cloth moistened in cool water. Do not use vinegar or alcohol for these purposes - they do not have any advantages over ordinary water, but their evaporation enhances the general intoxication of the body.
When should I call an ambulance
The reason for concern can be a sharp leap temperature above 38.5 s, a feeling of cutting in mucous membranes, shortness of breath, light-free. Ambulance brigade should also be caused by suspected infectious diseases:
- Infertility of consciousness or cramps at the peak of temporary lifting
- Long fever;
- Blood impurities and mucus in feces.
If at least one of the listed symptoms is observed both in an adult and a child, it follows without a delay to cause an "urgent".
Thus, medical tactics at high temperature depends primarily on its cause. With normal tolerance, you should not shoot down the temperature until it reached febrile values. It is also important to remember that mercury degrees, despite its accuracy, in many European countries are not recommended for use due to the high toxicity of mercury.
When a high temperature appears in an adult without symptoms, it always causes anxiety, because the temperature as one of the organism reactions does not occur on an empty place. However, the absence of any symptoms scares, because it is impossible to immediately determine the cause of such a state.
The optimal temperature indicator of normally undergoing processes in the human body is 36.6 ° C. However, there are moments when the temperature turns out to be increased without any reasons.
On the one hand, for some people it is the norm: there are people who have always 36, and there are also those that are normal - 37.4 ° C. On the other hand, if a person is usually normal 36.6 ° C, then a high temperature without symptoms in an adult means any violations.
Why occurs increased temperature?
In all other situations, an increase in body temperature above the norm says that the body is trying to fight with something. In most cases, these are foreign agents in the body - bacteria, viruses, the simplest or consequence of physical impact on the body (burn, frostbite, foreign body). At elevated temperature, the existence of agents in the body becomes difficult, infections, for example, die at a temperature of about 38 C.
All fevers are divided into three groups:
- Subfebrile fever at which the temperature rises from 37 to 38 degrees;
- Febrile fever - the temperature rises from 38 to 39 degrees;
- Hectic fever - an increase in temperature from up to 40 degrees and above.
But any organism, as well as the mechanism, is not perfect and can fail. In the case of temperature, we can observe this when the body due to the individual characteristics of the immune system reacts too violently to various infections, and the temperature rises too high, for most people it is 38.5 C.
Causes of high temperature in adults without symptoms
Increased temperature or fever is observed in almost all acute infectious diseases, as well as during the exacerbation of certain chronic diseases. And in the absence of catarrhal symptoms, the cause of the high character temperature of the patient's body doctors can be installed, highlighting the pathogen or directly from the local focus of infection, or from the blood.
It is much more difficult to determine the reason for the temperature without signs of a cold if the disease arose as a result of the impact on the body of conditionally pathogenic microbes (bacteria, mushrooms, mycoplasms) - against the background of a decrease in total or local immunity. Then it is necessary to conduct a detailed laboratory study of not only blood, but also urine, bile, sputum and mucus.
The causes of temperature without symptoms can be associated with the following diseases:
- Endocrine diseases, for example, thyrotoxicosis;
- System inflammation: Crohn's disease, rheumatism, polyarthritis, nodule periatritis, etc.;
- Oncological diseases: tumors of the stomach, liver, kidneys, bronchi or lungs, lymphoma, leukemia;
- Diseases of fungal, parasitic or viral etiology: syphilis, toxoplasmosis, candidiasis, malaria;
- Infectious diseases: HIV infection, Lyme disease, Returnable and suction typhus, tuberculosis;
- Inflammatory diseases of bacterial origin: sepsis, inflammation of the appendages of the uterus, prostatitis, meningitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, etc.
In all situations, the increase in temperature without signs of a cold suggests that the body is trying to fight something. For example, the so-called subfebrile fever often accompanies anemia - the low level of hemoglobin in the blood.
Do I need to shoot down the temperature?
It is believed that an increase in temperature is a favorable factor indicating the confrontation of the organism to devastating effects. When the thermometer is reading up to 38.5 ° C, you should not panic.
If its growth is observed, then it is worth bringing down the temperature using the antipyretic drug - paracetamol, aspirin ... You can also use NSAIDs - ibuprofen, nurofen. For children, children's nouroofen is best suitable in the form of a sweet syrup, but aspirin can not give a child.
At 42 ° C, irreversible changes in the cerebral cortex occur and the occurrence of death is possible. But this happens rarely.
Temperature 37 without symptoms: Possible causes
Rubber, elevated temperature, sore throat All these are familiar phenomena of a common cold. But what to do if the temperature is kept 37 without symptoms? For what reasons it arises and how to deal with it, let's figure it out.
Causes of temperature increase without visible symptoms:
- The offensive of pregnancy (in women);
- Imminent immunity;
- The presence of any sluggish infection in the body;
- Predominant state;
- Depletion of human energy reserves;
- General fatigue, depressive or post-trace state;
- Venestic diseases (syphilis, AIDS, etc.)
Basically, the temperature of 37 without symptoms in an adult is connected with the fact that there is some reason that caused such a state, but it is not until the end of the protective forces of a person.
Temperature 38 without symptoms: Possible causes
Temperature 38 Without symptoms can occur quite often. And not always the causes of this temperature are the same. This temperature can be alarmed that lacunar or follicular angina begins (with a catarrhal sinking, the temperature is raised slightly).
If the temperature above is 38 degrees without symptoms, 3 or more days is held, then this may be a manifestation:
- Heart attack;
- The inflammation of the kidneys (while characterized by a strong staging pain in the lower back);
- Terretous dystonia, accompanied by irrigates of blood pressure;
The most unpleasant syndrome is to preserve elevated temperatures for several weeks and even months. This is most likely:
- Sign of development in the body of the tumor;
- Serious endocrine disorders;
- Diffuse changes in the liver or lungs.
The only thing that unites all these cases is that in any case the temperature increase is due to the resistance of the body, which means that the immune system is fighting.
Temperature 39 without symptoms: Possible causes
If the temperature of 39 without symptoms in an adult occurs not for the first time, this is a clear sign of a pathological decline in immunite and the development of a chronic inflammatory process. The phenomenon may be accompanied by loss of consciousness, febrile convulsions, difficult to breathe or further increase it. In this case, it is necessary to apply to the medical institution.
High body temperature 39-39.5 ° without explicit symptoms may be a signal about the following diseases:
- The presence of a tumor process;
- Development of catarrhal angina;
- Manifestation of an allergic reaction;
- Chronic pyelonephritis;
- Manifestation of hypothalamic syndrome;
- The presence of viral endocarditis;
- The appearance of meningococcal infection.
Clarification of the reasons for increasing the temperature to 39 ° C in adults is a challenging task even for experienced specialists, since to establish the cause, it is necessary to select the pathogen from the blood or focus of infection.
What to do?
First, go to the reception to your therapist. Very often, we are simply not able to notice certain symptoms, and the doctor will easily reveal and will be able to diagnose the disease. It is also necessary to pass tests, they will help to identify many diseases that do not appear externally. Sometimes the doctor may assign sowing sputum, urine or blood, x-rays or ultrasound.
It is not recommended to abuse antipyretic. With a symptom, you can postpone the examination for a long time and launch the disease that, of course, damages health.
If the temperature is very high, it is worth calling an ambulance brigade so that the doctors make urgent help and resolved the issue of hospitalization. In any case, the high temperature is the "cry" of the body for help, and attention should be paid to it.
Information from this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-treatment. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic studies should appoint only the attending physician. To make a diagnosis and proper appointment of treatment, you should contact your attending physician.
High temperature - the causes of appearance, under what diseases there are, diagnosis and methods of treatment occur.
The increase in temperature serves as a protective reaction of the body and can occur under the influence of various factors. Be sure to separate such conditions as hyperthermia (overheating) and fever, which is also accompanied by an increase in body temperature, but its mechanism differs from overheating and requires other measures of impact on the body.
Fever launch external (or exogenous) pyrogens - alien substances for the body that fell into the blood. These include infectious pyrogens: virus toxins and microorganisms metabolism products. Also, the primary group includes noncommunicable pyrogens: certain lipids, proteins and protein-containing substances entering the body from the external environment or occurring in the body with inflammatory processes, allergic reactions or decay of tumor tissues. Primary pyrogens, interacting with the cells of the immune system, initiate the production of internal, or endogenous (secondary) pyrogen - cytokines. It is they, acting on the thermoregulation center in the brain, cause an increase in body temperature.
Fevering state has its own dynamics and includes several stages.
If for the criterion of the flow of fever to take the body temperature, then three stages can be distinguished:
1 stage - a period of temperature rise;
2 Stage - a period of conservation, or temperature;
3 Stage - a period of decline in temperature to normal values ..
Stage of lifting temperature
The rate of temperature lifting depends on the concentration of pyrogen in the blood and can serve as a diagnostic sign.
The rapid increase in temperature to high values is observed with influenza, inhibitory pneumonia,
And it is also possible when the alien protein falls into the blood (for example, when overflowing blood components). In this case, a strong chills occurs, there is a cooling of the skin, which is due to the spasm of surface blood vessels.
Slow temperature rise is typical for adenoviral infection, abdominal typhoid, brucellosis. In these cases, a pronounced chill may be absent, and the first sensations of the disease will be heat, dry eye, headache, malaise. Perhaps the pale of the skin, cooling stop and palms.
What should I do?
First of all, it is necessary to warm the patient, shutting it with a blanket. A good effect gives the boards attached to the legs and hand.
Temperature standing stage
After reaching the top value, the temperature is kept at this level. This period is called the temperature stage of the temperature, when the balance between heat-product and heat transfer is established. At this stage, the patient feels a heat, drowsiness. Maybe the absence of appetite, thirst. Depending on the level of temperature rise, weak, or subfebrile temperature - 37-38 ° C; moderate, or febrile - 38-39 ° C; High - 39-41 ° C and excessive - above 41 ° C.
The temperature knocking is not always appropriate.
Fever is a protective and adaptive reaction of the body that occurs in response to the action of pyrogen.
At a temperature of 37.5-38 ° C, the body actively struggles with infection. However, each person reacts in different ways to an increased temperature. Therefore, making a decision on a drug decrease in temperature, you should focus on well-being and related symptoms. This is especially true for children. Conditionally threshold temperature in which it is necessary to strengthen the observation of the state of health and external manifestations, the temperature of 38 ° C is considered to be.
The period of preservation of temperature at a high level depends on the infectious agent, the state of immunity and the conductive treatment.
In normal cases, this time may vary from one to five days, but with a severe course of the disease stretch for several weeks.
Temperature fluctuations in a fevering patient have a certain rhythm: the maximum values are noted at 5-6 pm, the minimum is about 4-5 am hours and variability. When inflammation of the lungs, for example, the temperature can long hold on at a high level. For bronchitis, lung tuberculosis is characterized by significant daily fluctuations in temperature (1-2 ° C). The so-called exhausting fever is very dangerous, which is characterized by sharp temperatures (with a rapid rise and decline), sometimes repeated two or three times during the day. There is such fever during sepsis, the presence of a cavern with the tuberculosis of the lungs and the decay of the pulmonary fabric.
What should I do?
At high temperatures, it is necessary to free the patient from unnecessary clothing and to provide fresh air access, eliminating drafts. On the forehead and region of large vessels (elbow and knee bends) can be put cold compress. You can wipe the body with a moistened with cool water towel.
The question of the drug decrease in temperature is solved in each case individually.
A person is harder to carry no high temperature, but intoxication of the body. Therefore, basic measures should be directed to the removal of toxic exchange products from the body. This is achieved with plentiful drink, if necessary, cleansing enemas.
When prescribing antipyretic drugs, children take into account the following nuances:
- the age of the child is less than three months, and the temperature rose above 38 ° C;
- Previously a healthy child aged three months to six years, the temperature rose above 39 ° C;
- in a child with heart diseases or light temperatures exceed 38 ° C;
- the child of any age (up to 18 years) with convulsive syndrome, diseases of the central nervous system, in the presence of such external signs, like pallor, skin sinusiness and cooling limbs, general lethargy and inhibition, it is necessary to reduce the temperature if it reached 88 ° C . Otherwise, the occurrence of a convulsive syndrome, which is extremely dangerous and can lead to suffocation.
At high temperatures, the operation of all organ systems changes.
The cardiac frequency increases by 8-10 shots per minute per degree in temperature increase. It is often an arrhythmia, more often than extrasystolia (extraordinary reductions), spasm of blood vessels and an increase in blood pressure.
The secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract are reduced, which leads to a delay in the intestine, and the lack of liquid causes constipation. Given these factors, it is necessary to adjust the nutrition of a fevering patient. Preferences should be given to liquid easily disabled food, reducing the size of the portion, but by increasing the number of food meals.
There is a feature that should be taken into account with diabetes mellitus. It must be remembered that the fever is accompanied by an increase in blood glucose levels, which requires appropriate measures.
The main antipyretic drugs include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - paracetamol, ibuprofen, diclofenac. These medicines quickly act and quickly derived from the body.
Although the practice of receiving antipyretic in the form of tablets is widespread, experience shows that side effects are more pronounced.
Preferably use rectal suppositories.
In this case, the method of administering drugs The active substance through the blood vessels of the rectum is directly in the blood. There is no irritant effect of medicines on the gastric mucous membrane. The possibility of administering the drug, regardless of food intake.
Temperature decline stage
The decrease in temperature in infectious diseases occurs either quickly and is accompanied by an abundant sweating, and sometimes a drop in blood pressure, or slowly, within one or two days.
What should I do?
It is possible to help the patient with a sharp drop in temperature, quickly replacing wet underwear on dry and drinking hot tea.
It is important to remember that the decrease in temperature is not an indicator of recovery.
There are still microorganisms or viruses in the body that can cause the second wave of the disease. Streptococcal infections are especially dangerous in this respect, which often give complications on the heart, kidney and joints. Therefore, bedding should be observed not only at high temperatures, but immediately after it is reduced. The recovery is recommended to perform clinical blood and urine tests.
High body temperature - This is a violation of thermoregulation, at which the temperature rises over 37 ° C. The symptom is accompanied by headaches, brushes in muscles, harsh weakness, ailment. Fever occurs more often in infectious diseases, but in elevated temperatures there may be non-infectious origin - endocrine and autoimmune diseases, tumors. To clarify the causes of hyperthermia, extended laboratory tests and visualizing methods are carried out. Quickly knock down the temperature usually helps antipyretic agents and physical cooling methods.
The temperature indicators are changing from absolutely healthy people throughout the day, in the morning the value for a couple of tenth degrees is lower than in the evening. Increased indicators of more than 37 ° C when measured in the armpit, indicates the pathology of thermoregulation. Temperature of the body is more often increased gradually. First, prudent symptoms appear - headache, lubrication in the body, general malaise, and later - a subjective feeling of cold, muscular trembling. When increasing the indicators, more than 38 ° C is replaced by a strong feeling of heat, the skin is hot to the touch, on the cheeks bright red blush.
The general condition of patients worsens, they refuse food. Lips dry and crack, worried about severe dryness in the mouth. The period of steady temperatures continues from several days to a month and more depending on the cause of fever. The normalization of thermoregulation processes may be sharp - with pronounced weakness, profuse sweats and hypotension or gradual when the general condition remains satisfactory. The temperature rise in the child is faster, up to 39-40 ° C in a few hours.
Fever always combines with other symptoms that correspond to the main pathology. Most often observed abdominal pain and dyspeptic disorders, signs of ARVI. At a temperature of 37 ° C and higher in an adult, which holds for more than 2 days, you need to consult a doctor. At a fever, a child requires medical care on the first day of high temperature, since the thermoregulation mechanisms are not developed in childhood, the fever is heavier.
According to the etiological factor, the fever is infectious - caused by bacteria, viruses and mushrooms or non-infectious - with damage to internal organs, tumors, allergic reactions. By duration, the high body temperature is classified on ephemeral (up to 3 days), sharp (from 3 days to 2 weeks), subacute (2-6 weeks) and chronic (longer than 1.5 months). In clinical practice, the classification of fever is often used, taking into account the level of pathologically elevated temperature, according to which there exists:
- Subfebrile body temperature . Temperature values are located in the range of 37-38 degrees, are accompanied by weakness, driers, reduced disability. It is often occurred in chronic sluggish inflammatory processes in the body - some infections with a latent period, endocrine diseases.
- Fabry body temperature . Numeric indicators from 38 ° to 39 ° C. Its appearance indicates an active inflammatory process, which launches the inner causes of fever: mechanisms of the immune system, massive products of endogenous pyrogen. Observed with many infectious and somatic pathologies.
- High (Pyretic) Body Temperature . A pronounced violation of thermoregulation with fever 39-41 ° C. There is a sharp deterioration in the state, strong dehydration, attacks of nausea and vomiting. It is an urgent state of pediatrics, since children sometimes develop cramps.
- Hypertichetic body temperature . Extremely difficult condition when temperature indicators exceed 41 degrees. Specifies to the full breakdown of the mechanisms of central thermoregulation. In addition to conventional signs of fever, there is a violation of consciousness with nonsense and hallucinations. State requires emergency care.
Doctors evaluate the fever on fluctuations in indicators during the day - the so-called temperature curve. The constant temperature is characterized by fluctuations in the limits of 1 degree, with a drop-down fever, the indicators vary by 1-2 ° C, but do not reach normal temperature. With hectic form, which is caused by purulent and septic processes, temperature fluctuations are 3-5 ° C for days. The rare type of temperature curve includes intermittent, return and wave-like.
Causes of elevated body temperature
Causes of subfebrile body temperature
The temperature increase of more than 37 degrees on the skin or more than 37.8 ° C in the determination of indicators in the rectum is observed with minor products of cytokines and pyrogens, which affect the center of thermoregulation in the hypothalamus. The state is accompanied by general malaise, but performance is often preserved. Subfebrile body temperature causes such reasons as:
- Emotional reactions : Long stress, neurosis and neurosis-like states, hysteria.
- Hormonal changes in women : First trimester of pregnancy, climax.
- Respiratory diseases : cold, ORVI, simple bronchitis and interstitial pneumonia.
- Focal inflammation : chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis.
- Chronic bacterial infections : tuberculosis, brucellosis, Lyme disease.
- Viral processes : Acute hepatitis, simple herpes and lisha, cytomegalovirus.
- Children's infections : Cort, rubella.
- Temperature "tail" of infectious diseases .
- Helmintoses : Giardiasis, Amebiaz, opistorhoz.
- Pathology of intestines : Nonspecific ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Wipple's disease.
- Autoimmune processes : System red lupus, sclerodermia and dermatomyosis, rheumatoid arthritis.
- Endocrine pathology : Initial stage of thyrotoxicosis, Addison disease.
- Tumors : Lymphogranulomatosis, acute and chronic leukemia.
- HIV infection .
- Yatrogenic factors : Postoperative period, reaction to blood transfusion or vaccination.
- Complications of pharmacotherapy : Reception of antibiotics, psychotropic drugs, atropine.
- Rare reasons : chronic sepsis, allergic reactions.
Causes of Febrile Temperature Body
If the body temperature is constantly increased to 38 degrees and more, this indicates a sharp course of the disease. Patients inform strong head and muscle pains, weakness, drowsiness. At the same time, the appetite is reduced, and the feeling of thirst is enhanced due to massive losses of water with sweat and breathing. Common reasons for which febrile temperature develops:
- Acute respiratory pathology : flu, adenoviral and rinoviral infection, ORVI.
- Infectious diseases : Abdominal and rapid typhus, malaria, meningococcal meningitis.
- Intestinal infections : Salmonelles, dysentery, Escherichiosis, etc.
- ENT disease : sinusitis (sinusitis, front), angina, otitis.
- Lower respiratory tract : purulent bronchitis and bronchiolitis, exudative pleurisy, focal and brute pneumonia.
- Purulent foci : Outdoor (furuncula, carbuncules, wound suppuration) and internal (liver abscesses, intestines, empty pleura).
- Syndrome "Acute Belly": Apandicitis, cholecystitis, mesadenit.
- Heart diseases: Bacterial endocarditis, acute rheumatic fever, endocarditis Libman-Sax.
- Beaming bones and joints : Hematogenic and traumatic osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, sarcoma.
- Pathology of the urogenital system : acute pyelonephritis, apostate nephritis, renal colic.
- Overheating of the organism : heat and solar blow, anhydrosis, wearing clothes that do not match the weather.
- Fever unclear origin .
- Rare reasons : Putting infections (Creitzfeldt-Jacob's disease, Kuru, Fatal family insomnia), vessel collagenosis.
The inspection of patients with elevated temperature is engaged in the therapist. The volume of diagnostic measures depends on the clinical picture and the presence of additional symptoms, if there are explicit signs of lesion of a certain system, its targeted diagnosis is carried out. In the case of long-term fever, an unknown reason, the examination is performed according to a standard algorithm, which includes extended laboratory methods and instrumental visualization. The most informative research:
- Blood test . In general analysis, pay attention to the signs of the inflammatory process (leukocytosis, increased ESP). Measure the levels of sharp-phase proteins and antinuclear antibodies to eliminate autoimmune processes. In the period of acute inflammation of the inflammatimate procalcitonin test. To evaluate the heart function, analyzes the anti-rampolizin, troponin.
- Gemoculture . Blood fence is carried out in the period of the most elevated temperature, at least 3 times. Sowing material is made on selective nutrient media, if there are a large number of bacterial colonies, the septicemia is diagnosed. Additionally, blood is investigated using ELISA, reef - express methods for detecting antibodies and antigens of pathogens.
- Bacteriological research . In addition to blood, samples of feces and urine, sprud, are used to release pathogens. If at elevated temperature, neurological symptoms are detected, take the spinal fluid. After determining the colonies of pathogenic microorganisms, a test for sensitivity to antibacterial drugs is made.
- Radiography . With long-term preservation of elevated temperatures, the chest radiographs are performed in two projections, on which parts of the dimming, cavity with a horizontal level of fluid can be detected, the deformation of the bronchial tree. The overview radiography of the abdominal cavity helps to exclude abscesses, large inflammatory conglomerates and perforations of the hollow organ.
- Ultrasound procedure . To clarify the causes of the febrile fever, echocardiography is carried out, during which the signs of infectious endocarditis, the growing valves, the pathology of large arteries are determined. To eliminate endocrine disorders, the ultrasound of the thyroid gland and parachitoid glands, adrenal glands.
- Highly specific visualizing methods . If the cause of high temperature fails to be established by standard methods, the scintigraphy of the entire body with gallium is shown, which allows you to identify chronic abscesses, volumetric neoplasms. Osteomyelitis is confirmed by bone scintigraphy with technetium. In suspected meningitis, CT or MRI brain is recommended.
At high body temperature shows abundant drink
Help before diagnosis
With an elevated subfebrile temperature, which lasts less than 2 days, specific treatment is not required. A large duration of symptoms indicates the presence of a pathological process, which is an indication for appealing for medical care. Before establishing the cause of fever, the patient needs to provide abundant warm drinks. Apply physical cooling methods - wipes, cold compresses. Drinking the antipyretic means to bring down the temperature, adults are recommended for thermometer indicators of more than 38.5 ° C, children give antipyrtic at temperatures, elevated more than 38 degrees.
Medical tactics depends on the reason for the appearance of symptoms and the overall condition of the patient. With a high fever, temperature measurement in the hospital is carried out every 2-3 hours to evaluate the dynamics. In children, the thermoregulation disruption is sometimes accompanied by convulsions, therefore, when a high febrile temperature is detected, antipyretic medicines immediately give them. The prerequisite is adequate etiotropic and pathogenetic therapy, against the background of which thermometry indicators are normalized. The therapeutic purpose is used:
- Antibiotics . Medicines are selected empirically, the treatment scheme is adjusted after receiving the results of Bakposev. With massive purulent processes, combinations of 2 or 3 drugs are recommended, which are entered by parenterally in high therapeutic doses.
- Antiviral tools . With influenza, specific medications that block the reproduction of the virus and accelerating recovery are shown. For viral hepatitis therapy, drugs have been developed that reduce the viral load and facilitate the overall state.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs . Nonteroidal drugs block the synthesis of prostaglandins and cytokines operating on the thermostat center, reduce the activity of the inflammatory process. NSAIDs are used with powerful antipyretic properties.
- Glucocorticoids . Assigned with severe systemic autoimmune or allergic reactions that are not amenable to other therapy. With caution, they are used in infections, since adrenal hormones suppress the activity of the immune system.
- Infusion Solutions . At temperatures above 38 ° C and serious condition of the patient, rehydration and disinfecting therapy are required. Salt solutions containing essential electrolytes are poured. Treatment is complemented by diuretics.
- Vitamins . In sluggish processes to stimulate immunity, ascorbic acid are used, group vitamins. B. Effective metabolic preparations that improve metabolic processes in cells have a tonic effect. Means are combined with antioxidants.
When the detection of large abscesses or foci of osteomyelitis, they need to drain and rinse the formed cavities with antiseptic solutions. In case of diseases that are manifested by "acute abdomen", extensive operations with wide access are shown to remove changed intestinal sections with a subsequent abdominal cavity sanitation. Under malignant tumors, radical surgical interventions are carried out (removal of education together with the surrounding tissue and regional lymph nodes), combined with radiation and chemotherapy.
Heat - A typical symptom with many diseases. It is focusing on the temperature, we often define, a man is sick or not. But this is not quite right, because the temperature is only a manifestation of the disease, and not the disease itself. Therefore, knock down the temperature - does not mean to recover. It is necessary not only to fight with a high temperature, but to determine which disease it caused, and to treat it. And for this you need to consult a doctor.
Signs of high temperature
The fact that the temperature rises, the following signs (symptoms) can say:
- The feeling of weakness that sounded suddenly fatigue, a general painful state;
- chills (light chills with slightly elevated temperature and strong - with high);
- dry skin and lips;
- headache, lubrication in the body;
- loss of appetite;
- sweating ("throws in sweat");
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it will not be worthwhile to deliver a thermometer
What is considered to be high temperatures?
Normal temperature is usually considered to be the temperature of 36.6 ° C. But in fact, the temperature is in a rather wide range.
During the day, the body temperature is quite fluctuating. The lowest temperature is observed in the morning, immediately after awakening; Maximum - in the evening, on the outcome of the day. The difference can be somewhere 0.5 ° C. Physical activity, stress, ordinary meal, alcohol consumption, staying in the bath or on the beach can raise the temperature. In women, temperature fluctuations are also associated with ovulation. In a few days before ovulation, the temperature decreases, and upon the occurrence of ovulation - increases.
On average, the normal temperature is considered to be the temperature from 35 ° to 37 ° C. In children under the age of 3 years, temperatures up to 37.5 ° C are also considered an option for the norm. It is important where you measure the temperature. You can focus on 36.6 ° C if you put a thermometer under the mouse. If the thermometer holds in the mouth ( Oral temperature ), then the normal temperature will be 0.5 ° C above (36.8-37.3 ° C). In order to obtain normal values when measuring the temperature in the rectum ( Rectal temperature ), I will need to add another half-grade (norm 37.3-37.7 ° C). If the temperature is measured under the temperature under the mouse, the temperature in the range is 37-38 ° C, high - above 38 ° C.
Causes anxiety or temperature rising above 38 ° C, or temperatures up to 38 ° C, which remains for a long time ( Subfebrile temperature ).
When the temperature rise is dangerous?
High body temperature is an undoubted sign that in the body there is a pathological process, as a rule, an inflammatory nature. The higher the temperature, the faster it rises or longer holds, the more seriously there may be a problem. That is why the high temperature scares.
Meanwhile, in itself, the temperature rise in most cases is a protective reaction to infection penetration. At high temperature, the activity of pathogenic microorganisms is reduced, and the protective forces of the body, on the contrary, are intensified: the exchange of substances, blood circulation is accelerated, antibodies are highlighted faster. But it increases the burden on many organs and systems: cardiovascular, respiratory. High temperature oppress the nervous system leads to dehydration. It is possible to occur circulatory disorders in the internal organs (due to an increase in viscosity and blood coagulation). Therefore, a high temperature that holds for a long time can be a danger in itself. Also dangerous is the ultra-high temperature (above 41 ° C).
Do I need to shoot down the temperature or not?
It is not worth a hurry to riveting the temperature. First of all, the patient should inspect the doctor. The recommendations of the doctor should be followed: if it advises to bring down the temperature, then you need to shoot down. The doctor makes decisions on the basis of the overall picture of the disease and evaluation of the patient's condition, that is, the recommendations are always individual.
However, if the patient is seriously tolerated the temperature, and the temperature is high (39 ° C or higher), then it can be given the antipyretic drug, strictly observing the instructions indicated on the package. At the same time it is necessary to understand that you are struggling with a symptom, not a disease.
The correct course of treatment implies the establishment of the cause of high temperature and carrying out a set of measures aimed at treating the disease that caused its increase.
Causes of high temperature
Any inflammatory process can cause temperature increase. The nature of inflammation can be different - bacterial, viral, fungal. In most cases, the temperature is the nature of the concomitant symptom: for example, when otitis - hurts ("pulls") the ear and the temperature is increased ...
The temperature draws special attention when other symptoms are not observed. Temperature against the background of standard signs of ORVI is usual, but only one high temperature scares.
Diseases in which high temperature can be observed without other symptoms :
ORVI and flu. Influenza, and in some cases other ORVIs can begin with a sudden rise of temperature. In this case, the catarrhals begin slightly later (closer to the evening or the next day);
angina. Along with the temperature, there is usually pain in the throat when swallowing. The sore throat is quite quickly intensified, so it is impossible not to notice;
Windmill (chickenpox). Typically start of the windmill - high temperature. Characteristic rashes can appear only by 2-3 days of the disease;
Abscess (accumulation of pus in surface tissues or in internal organs). With an abscess temperature "floats": Temperature peaks can be interconnected by normal temperature during the day (as opposed to a typical "ordinary" infectious disease of the temperature chart - when the lowest temperature is observed after the morning awakening, and in the evening it is growing);
Inflammations of the urogenital system (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis) are usually manifested by high temperature and pain in the renal projection. But in some cases, pain may be absent;
appendicitis - can also leak without pain;
meningitis and encephalitis (inflammation of cerebral shells of infectious origin). In this case, the high temperature is accompanied by a strong headache, nausea, violation of vision. A characteristic symptom - the tension of the muscles of the neck (the chin is impossible to omit to the chest);
Hemorrhagic fever (usually the infection occurs when the bite of wild animals, for example, mouse-tolets). There is also its own characteristic symptoms - a decrease (up to stop) urination, the emergence of subcutaneous hemorrhages (point redness of the skin, rash), muscle pain.
Increased temperature (up to 37.5-38 ° C) without pronounced other symptoms may be observed at:
Also with increasing temperature flows the following diseases:
Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia). Inflammation of the lungs is a common cause of high temperature. It is usually observed in breast pain, shortness of breath, cough;
Infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastroenterocolites). Here the temperature acts as a side symptom. Main complaints: abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting;
Viral hepatitis A, which is characterized by the appearance of jaundice color of the skin and eye proteins;
other viral diseases - measles, rubella, epidemic vapotitis (pig), mononucleosis, poliomyelitis, etc.;
Chronic diseases of the urinary system (chronic pyelonephritis, cystitis), in women - chronic salpingofrit. Along with a subfebrile temperature, abdominal pains and urination disorders may be observed;
sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis, urogenital infections - toxoplasmosis, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis, etc.);
Chronic myocarditis and endocarditis. In this case, the usual symptom - pain in the field of heart;
Autoimmune diseases (rheumatism, systemic red lupus, etc.).
This, of course, is not a complete list of diseases capable of increasing temperature
High temperature in a child
The child will not say that he has a high temperature. Even already relatively large children, including students in elementary school, as a rule, cannot correctly evaluate their state of health. Therefore, parents need to carefully follow the condition of the child. To suspect the temperature rise in the following features:
- The child becomes unexpectedly sluggish or, on the contrary, restless and capricious;
- He is tormented by thirst (all the time asks to drink);
- mucous membranes become dry (lip dryness, language);
- Bright blush or, on the contrary, unusual pallor;
- eyes blush or shine;
- The child sweats;
- Pulse and breathing. The normal pulse is 100-130 beats per minute in a dream and 140-160 during wakefulness. By two years, the frequency is reduced to 100-140 beats per minute. The normal respiratory frequency also depends on the age, for a two-month-old child, it is 35-48 breaths per minute, for age from year to three 28-35 breaths.
You can measure the body temperature in the axillary or inguinal depression you can mercury thermometer (it most accurately shows the temperature), rectally - only electronic. It can be rectally measured only at a small child (up to 4-5 months), older children oppose the procedure, as it is unpleasant. For rectal temperature measurement, the thermometer tip is lubricated with children's cream, the legs of the child rise, as when it is washed. The tip of the thermometer is introduced into the rectum to a depth of 2 cm.
We should not forget that in children up to a year normal temperature is considered to be temperatures up to 37.5 ° C, and even up to 3 years, such a temperature does not always mean that the child is sick. It is impossible to measure the temperature when the child is very worried, crying, or it is strongly ukutane - the temperature in these cases will be expected above. It can also increase the body temperature or a hot bath or too high in the room.
In young children, the temperature can rise up to 38.3 ° C for reasons not related to diseases, such as:
- overheating (as a result of excessive wrapping, staying under direct sunlight or disruption of drinking mode), especially under 3 months;
- constipation (if the child is being worn, the temperature can grow);
- teething (one of the most frequent causes).
If it does not seem that the temperature is caused by one of these reasons, it holds and does not fall or, even more so, it grows, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor. At temperatures above 38 ° C, you need to consult a doctor in any case.
What to do at elevated temperature
While the temperature rises, the patient beats the chills, it is cold. I want to get dressed as much as possible, wrapped in a blanket, and it is natural. But as soon as the temperature rose, and the patient was hot, it is necessary to take care so that there was no overvel overheating: it is necessary to change clothes (or disguise the sick child) into light cotton clothing. You can cover the package.
Bed regime is recommended, but if the child, despite the temperature is active, it is not necessary to drive into the bed with a silt, although it is worth keeping excessive activity that can lift the temperature even more.
The air in the room where the patient is located, should be fresh and cool. The room must be tired, removing the patient for the time of airports to another room.
At high temperatures you need to drink more. You can drink a little, but constantly. Great fruit fruit, compotes, diluted juices, tea with lemon, green tea.
Do not take a shower or bath. It can be watched with water temperature or vinegar (9% vinegar solution are diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio). Little children wipe the vinegar is not recommended. Wasten with cold water or alcohol can lead to an increase in fever.
The antipyretic means must be taken to appoint a doctor, strictly observing the instructions.
In some cases at high temperature Show an ambulance :
- If a vomiting is observed against the background of the temperature;
- If the temperature is accompanied by the appearance of rash;
- in febrile cramps and other difficult conditions;
- If at temperatures above 38.5 ° C, headache, inhibition, drowsiness are observed;
- If the temperature continues to rise or does not fall, despite the accepted antipyretic drugs;
- at temperatures above 39.5 ° C.