Differential diagnosis of cough in children and its treatment

Cough is a protective mechanism for cleansing the bronchi and trachea. It occurs when exposed to "fast" or irritative receptors of mechanical and chemical stimuli and to "slow" C-receptors - inflammatory mediators. Rare cough shocks are physiological, they remove the accumulation of mucus from the larynx; Healthy children "fade" 10-15 times per day, more in the morning, which should not disturb their parents.

With the differential diagnosis of cough, it is very important to distinguish its temporal characteristics: acutely occurring cough; a tightening cough, lasting three or more weeks after an acute episode; recurrent arising periodically; Long permanent cough.

Types of cough

A sharply arose cough . It is characteristic of the acute viral Qatar of the upper respiratory tract, as well as for inflammation in the larynx (laryngit, croup), trachea (tracheitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and lungs (pneumonia). When defeating the respiratory tube cough at first dry , unproductive - does not lead to the discharge of sputum and subjectively felt as obsessive. With laryngitis and tracheake it often acquires barking Character and metallic Oberton. The dry cough is accompanied by a hole in the throat during laryngitis. With pneumonia, cough usually happens moist From the first hours of the disease, it is often described as deep .

The wet cough is characteristic of the expanded painting of the bronchitis, its shocks ends with the experience of sputum (in young children it is perceived by hearing), arising again with its accumulation. The debit of sputum is subjectively perceived as relief.

In the differential diagnosis of the acute cough, it is important to make sure of its connection with infection (increase in temperature, the presence of catarrhal syndrome). In a child with signs of acute respiratory viral infection (ORVI), witnessing voice, the difficulty of the breath point to the defeat of the larynx with a possible threat of asphyxia (croup). Wet swarms in both lungs point to bronchitis: the older children are usually large and the middle-reported, the little things are often small, which allows the diagnosis of bronchiolitis.

The key task in the presence of signs of ARS is the exclusion of pneumonia - most often in the lungs there are no wheezes or listened to a limited piece of lung, where the shortening of the percussion sound and / or change in the character of breathing is also determined. The character and power of cough do not indicate the etiology of pneumonia. Exception is Kashel Detokato With chlamydial pneumonia in children of the first months of life: "Dry", ripped, ringing, follows, follows, but without reprise, is accompanied by Tahipne, but not a feverish reaction.

Spastic cough It is characteristic of bronchial asthma, and in children of the first years of life - with acute obstructive bronchitis or bronchiolite. With these forms, wheezing are accompanied by extension of exhalation, which indicates the presence of bronchial obstruction. The spastic cough is usually unproductive, intrusive, often has a whistling obton in the end.

In the event of a sudden appearance of cough, including spastic, without signs of ARVI, you should think about the foreign body in the respiratory tract, especially in a child who had not had no spastic cough. For him is characterized by attack Cocktle cough - obsessive, but not accompanied by reprises. Such a cough can last a short time, when promoting a foreign body in smaller bronchi cough may stop. The foreign body is accompanied by often bloating of one light, over which breathing is heard and, often, whistling exhalation; With such symptoms, bronchoscopy is shown.

Tightening cough (more than 2 weeks). It is often observed, usually after acute bronchitis. Most often, it is connected not so much with the inflammatory process as such as with the post-infectious hyperproduction of sputum and, often, with hypersensitivity of cough receptors. In deciphering such cough is important to account for the age of the child.

In infants after obstructive bronchitis, the preservation of mucus hypersecretions with an increase in the cough threshold causes a rare wet cough for 4 weeks and more; His distinctive feature is the presence of "hoarse" - bubbling sounds in a chest, hearing at a distance that disappear after coughing and occur again as sputum accumulates. The sputum of the trachea and the larynx in infants evacuated with more rare cough jesters, when the lumen of the bronchi will be almost completely blocked. In such children, cough with a pressure on the trachea (or a spatula for the root of the tongue) is called with difficulty. The cough associated with hypersecretion gradually subsides - both in frequency and in the intensity.

At the same time, however, the cough should be excluded associated with the usual aspiration of food due to dysfagia - the most common cause of a protracted cough in infants, both breastfeeding and artificially. The establishment of the fact of dysfagia requires usually observations of the feeding process, since not every mother records attention on coughing connections with food intake. In addition to the "embarrassment", "coupling" during food for food aspiration, the appearance of wheezing, which quickly disappear or change their localization and intensity after coughing push. With chest radiography, such children usually reveals blackout or enhancing the pulmonary pattern in the field of upper fractions.

Cough when taking food is observed in the presence of bronchopuscane fistula, its distinctive feature is a separation of abundant foamy sputum; The presence of this symptom requires a contrasting study of the esophagus and esophagoscopy.

For children having, in addition to dysphagia, gastroofing reflux, characteristic cough attacks during sleep. The wet pillow detection confirms this diagnosis.

The tightening cough in the children of early and preschool age is often caused by a flipping of the mucus in the larynx from the nasopharynx with a long time of the current Noodopharyngitis, adenoid, adenoid hypertrophy; Unlike cough with bronchitis, it is not accompanied by wheezing in the lungs, often has the character of superficial and disappears in the treatment of the process in the nasophal. A protracted episode of bronchitis with a cough for 2-4 weeks is common for preschoolers with recurrent bronchitis.

Tightening dry cough In children of school age and adolescents, which can last up to 6 weeks, often in trachekit or tracheobronchite, developing in some respiratory viral infections (RS, Rino, paragripping viruses). It is often painful, parlor, the attack ends with the disheve of the lump of the tight mucus (fibrinous overlays). Special studies, however, it was shown that among coughing more than 2 weeks of children of this age, 25% and more tolerate coughs in the characteristic atypical form for them - without pronounced parole and reprise.

The flow of cough is characteristic both for not fully grafted children and children who have received 3 vaccinations and revaccination at 18 months. The fact is that anticulous immunity is gradually fading and in 5-6 years - to school age - most of the vaccinated becomes susceptible to this infection. Its atypical of them contributes to late diagnosis (if it was carried out at all) and the spread of infection and infection of infectious children who have not yet fully received all vaccinations.

The tightening cough in adolescents with coup is distinguished by the lack of wheezing in the lungs, it is usually not enhanced and does not acquire a specific nature, as not graft. Sometimes, however, it is possible with the finger pressure on the trachea or the spatula to the root of the tongue, bring the semblance of a cough coughing shock with the progress of the tongue, redness of the face, less often with a typical reprise. The bacteriological diagnosis of the cough in these children is rarely possible, the definitely definition in the blood of antitoxic antibodies, which in the sick, in contrast to the grafts, are present in high credits.

Recurrent cough . It is primarily characteristic of bronchial asthma patients - this is one of the frequent complaints of the parents of children who have not yet been diagnosed with asthma. The cough, accompanying almost every Episode of ARVI, is also characteristic of recurrent bronchitis - it is usually wet, protracted, its duration exceeds 2 weeks, it is not accompanied by obvious signs of bronchospasm, which, however, is often detected in the study of the function of external respiration (FVD) (sample with bronchodlatators).

With recurrent obstructive bronchitis (Rob) in children up to 3-4 years, cough - wet or "spastic" - Arises against the background of ARVI, usually in the presence of temperature and catarrhal syndrome. Unlike cough with bronchial asthma, he does not carry the nature of the attack. However, by the type of cough, these two forms can hardly be distinguished, since cough and obstruction on the ARVI background - the most common type of exacerbation and bronchial asthma, especially in young children. Many of them are diagnosed with Rob over time "flows" into the diagnosis of asthma, if such episodes are repeated more than 3-4 times or if the cough periods are associated with the impact of non-ARVI, and allergen, physical activity, cold air or arise as if at all without visible reasons - as a consequence of strengthening inflammatory changes in bronchial mucosa.

Long, permanent cough . It is observed in chronic diseases of the respiratory organs, which immediately distinguishes it from the types of cough described above. Of course, it can increase or weaken in certain periods of time, but it is fundamentally important that the child is almost constantly coughing.

Wet permanent cough It is observed with most impudent diseases of the lungs, accompanied by a cluster of sputum. Often cough is particularly strong in the morning, after the wet branch, it becomes less. More "deep" on the hearing cough is typical for bronchiectasis, with vices of the cartilage of the bronchi (Williams-Campbell syndrome), it can have spastic obraton.

In case of fibrosis, the cough is often obsessive and painful due to the viscosity of sputum, often accompanied by signs of obstruction. The diagnosis is not difficult in the presence of other manifestations of the fibrosis - weight loss, polyfecalia, drums, etc., but there are smaller forms of this disease, so that the study of electrolytes of sweat is shown in all children with a constant cough.

Permanent dry cough With a change in voice can point to the papillomatosis of the larynx. A dry cough, accompanied by shortness of breath, thoracic deformation, signs of the pulmonary heart, drum fingers are characteristic of the fibrosis alveolitis.

Special attention deserves Psycho Cashel For which the permanent cough is also typical. This is usually dry with a metal tint of cough, which is observed only during the daytime and disappears in a dream, its distinctive feature is a regularity and high frequency (up to 4-8 times per minute), stopping during food and conversation. A psychogenic cough usually occurs as a reaction to stressful situations in the family and school, becoming usually familiar, it often begins during the Orz, acquiring quite quickly described above. Part of the children, such a cough has the character of teak or manifestation of an derivative-compulsive disorder (La Turkett's housing syndrome).

Small children are often cough when stress - usually to achieve their goals; The cough is enhanced before and during the examination of the doctor, stopping at its end (withdrawing "stress of waiting"). The new bout of the cough can be provoked by touched by the unpleasant child of the themes (whims, observance of the day mode) or even just starting an abstract conversation without paying attention to the child. The reason for fastening the cough reflex in the child can be an increased anxiety of parents, the concentration of their attention on respiratory symptoms. Such children require an in-depth examination to eliminate organic pathology, sometimes trial treatment with spasmolitics and steroid aerosols.

Some types of cough differ in their character.

Biton cough (low, then high tones). It occurs with tuberculous granulations from lymphobronchial fistula, sometimes with foreign bodies of large bronchi. Is an indication for bronchoscopy.

Cough with deep breath . Accompanied by pain, indicates irritation of pleura; It takes place after anesthesia (codeine, commotol). The same cough during restrictive processes is associated with an increase in lung rigidity (allergic alveolitis). Deep breath causes cough and in children with asthma - it arises as a consequence of bronchial hyperreactivity; Surface respiration is an integral part of a number of medical physical education systems (LFC) used to treat asthma.

Night cough . It is typical for bronchial asthma, it usually occurs closer to the morning due to the strengthening of bronchospasm; Often he points to allergies to Peru in the pillow. A number of children have a night cough is an equivalent of asthma, so such children should be examined accordingly. Night cough is also observed in the gastrointestinal reflux, the older children complain about heartburn. Quite often, the night cough occurs in children with sinusitis or adenoiditis due to mucus entering the larynx and drying the mucous membrane during mouth breathing.

Cough - a sign of the hyperreactivity of the bronchi, is observed in a significant part of patients with bronchial asthma.

Cough with syncopes - short-term loss of consciousness - arises due to the reduction of venous tributary when increasing the intragenic pressure and, as a result, reducing cardiac output; The state is benign, except for antifungal treatments does not require treatment.

Treatment of cough

The fight against the cough is conducted by mankind from time immemorial - even now, when we know so much about cough, and parents, and many pediatricians consider cough as an undesirable symptom and strive to stop him. Complaints on the cough and persistent requests of parents to treat cough are associated, apparently, not only with the fact that cough is a clear sign of the child's unhealthy. Subjectively, the cough located near or in a close environment of a person is perceived as an annoying, irritable phenomenon. Hence the desire to stop the cough in whatever.

What new gives us a modern understanding of the nature of cough? Firstly, that the causes of cough are somewhat and that suppressing makes sense only cough caused by "dry" inflammation of the mucous respiratory tract - for example, with laryngitis, as well as cough associated with irritation of pleura. In the same cases, when the cough leads to the removal of sputum, it is impractical to suppress it and even dangerous. It is important to clarify the parents that cough is a protective reaction aimed at purifying the respiratory tract under conditions of hypersection of mucus and reduce the efficiency of mukiciliary clearance. Practically, the treatment of cough as such is required only in rare cases when it significantly violates the vital activity of the patient.

Antibiotics . First of all, it is important to understand that the presence of cough in itself is not a reason for antibacterial therapy. It is carried out only with a proven bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract (otitis, sinusitis, streptococcal angina) and lung damage (pneumonia, including chronic, fibrosis, malformations of the lungs). With regard to sharp bronchitis, it is proved that antibacterial therapy is justified only in mycoplasma and chlamydial etiology (10-15% of the total number of bronchitis, more often at school age), while the main mass of bronchitis, including obstructive, - viral diseases.

Antibacterial pertussis treatment, including the long cough occurring in the form of a long cough at an early beginning (in the first 7-10 days) can break the clinical manifestations. In a later date, it is difficult to expect a large effect from antibiotics, however, such treatment stops the bacillos for 2-3 days, so it is quite acquitted from an epidemiological point of view. Erythromycin (50 mg / kg / day) and clarithromycin (15 mg / kg / kg / day) have proven efficacy (15 mg / kg / day) for 10-14 days or azithromycin (10 mg / kg / day) 5 days.

The literature published primarily by otolaryngologists, data on the use of the local antibiotic fusofungin (bioparox) after the operations of tonsillo and adenotomy, as well as adenoid, ORVI. The drug also has a local anti-inflammatory effect. Taking into account the fact that the Pneumococcal and hemophilic sticks are reproduced during ORV, in children risk groups, its use can be justified. However, with proven bacterial infections (streptococcal angina, Otit et al.) The bioparox does not replace the systemic antibiotics.

Treatment of Larygita . With accompanying laryngitis, the cough is taken to carry out inhalation of hot steam - for example, in the bathroom with an open-tan hot water. However, it has been proven that this type of treatment is ineffective both in the criterion and at bronchitis. The metaanalysis of numerous studies on the treatment of cereals showed that the larynx pavement is most effectively preventing the introduction of dexamethasone (0.6 mg / kg) or, in more easily cases, inhalation of budesonide (bulvikort). These funds contribute to the rapid cessary cease.

Antitussive and expectorant means . The dry cough is theoretically the testimony for the appointment of antitussive tools, however, in most cases, it is replaced by moist after a few hours, in which these means are contraindicated. As antitussive agents, children are used mainly nonarcotic drugs - butamirate, dextromethorphan, glauzin, oxladin, pentoking (Table 1). In a newly conducted study, it was shown, however, that a spoon of buckwheat honey reassures the night cough in children 2-18 years old with ORVI, at least, no worse than the dose of dextromethorophane. And milk with alkali, tea with jam, etc. "Homemade" means soothes the barking cough with pharyngite (sore throat) is no worse than "antiseptic" pupin or sprays. This gave the basis of WHO recommend when coughing only home remedies.

In cases where it is necessary to assign drugs from pharyngitis, taking into account the fact that most means contain antiseptics that violate biocenosis of the oral cavity, it is preferable to use bioparox inhalations - bacteriostatics, which also has anti-inflammatory effects.

With a wet cough, the cough suppression is unacceptable, so the intervention is justified only with a difficulty wet evacuation. The effectiveness of expectorant means (mainly vegetable origin) is raised under great doubt; In addition, their use in young children can be accompanied by an allergic reaction and vomiting. Nevertheless, these funds (drugs of mint, altea, licorice, souls, coltsfoot, Anisa, Bagulnik, Cabin, etc.) apply widely, which can be justified by their cheap and security (Table 2). But the use of expensive forms of such funds, at least containing extracts of exotic plants (Grass Greenland, Queberaho, Ivy leaves), can not be justified. Ground rubbing with preparations containing essential oils (eucalyptus, needles, etc.) and balms that are absorbed by the skin are no more effective than expectorant.

Table 2. The composition of some expectorant drugs

Combined means are available, containing both expectorant and antitussive agents (Bronchloride, Tussin, etc.) (Table 1). The idea of ​​their creation is to make a cough more rare, but more productive, which should calm parents. These combinations also do not have proven effectiveness in children, but their testing in adult patients showed that such combinations do not improve the debit of sputum, but significantly reduce the indicators of the FVD. It is unlikely that after that it can be seriously recommended these means into practice.

Mukolitiki . More justified the use of mucolyts, especially in chronic diseases, accompanied by an abundance of viscous sputum (fibrosis, chronic pneumonia, the vices of the bronchi development). The most pronounced flucolytic effect of N-acetylcysteine, which in children's practice is used mainly under fiberglass and chronic pulmonary suppuration. However, it is difficult to attribute to indispensable drugs: for example, in the United States in patients with cystic cycidosis, acetylcysteine ​​is applied relatively rarely, preferring vibromassa. In the presence of purulent sputum in patients with cystic cycidosis, a pulmbation (Dornaza-Alpha) is shown, splitting DNA accumulating in sputum during the decay of cell elements (Table 3). The use of these means is permissible only in conditions where the postural drainage can be carried out after they are administered.

Use acetylcysteine ​​during acute diseases, including bronchitis, should not, since they are viscous, a rarity, and the ability to hold postural drainage in the event of a "fearing" of lung liquid wets, and this drug is allowed from 12 years.

With sharp and recurrent bronchitis, the improvement of mukiciliary transport is better achieved by carbocysystemine and ambroxol, the latter can be used both inward and in the form of an aerosol - in children receiving inhalation of sympathomimetics about obstructive bronchitis.

The cough suppression accompanying obstructive syndrome is also not an end in itself - the use of sympathomimetics, eliminating bronchospasm, contribute to the cessation of cough (Table 4). With asthmatic status, accompanied by the formation of the castlers of bronchi, attempts to use N-acetylcysteine ​​can lead to an increase in bronchospasm.

Anti-inflammatory means . The use of locally active inhalation corticosteroids (X) is the basis of the therapy of the medium and severe bronchial asthma. Used both dosage inhalers (beclomeletazone, budesonide, fluticasone) and solutions for a nebulizer with budesonide (bulvikort), especially in children up to 3-5 years (Table 5). Suppressing inflammation in the mucous membranes, X is helping to stop the cough caused by him.

Table 5. Topical corticosteroids - solutions for inhalation

The X can also be applied in respiratory infections of a heavier course, in which the cough is connected, first of all, with an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane of the bronchi. In particular, the use of these funds in the convulsive pertussum reduces the frequency of cough attacks and its intensity. X (together with sympathomimetics) can be used in the treatment of obstructive bronchitis (especially relapse Rob) in young children. And although the X does not reduce the duration of the disease, they have a positive effect on the severity of an acute period; There is also data on reducing the frequency of obstruction relapses while continuing the treatment of X for 2-4 weeks after the end of the acute period. With prolonged cough on the basis of Tracitis, the X is also often brought persistent relief.

The use of X, for obvious reasons, cannot be a "means of combating coughing" with most respiratory infections. An alternative to them is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of Fenspirid (Erispal - 2 mg / ml syrup), not possessing, as a rule, a serious side effect. This drug improves mukiciliary clearance, has an activity as an antispasmodic and a block of H1-histamine receptors. In many patients, especially with recurrent bronchitis, including obstructive, chronic pathology Erispal (at a dose of 4 mg / kg / day, in children older than 1 year - 2-4 tbsp. Spoons per day) brings a distinct cough and condition generally.

Treatment of psychogenic cough . Children with a psychogenic cough usually do not help with antitussive agents, expectorant, muco- and antispasmodics. Their treatment (after the elimination of the possible organic cause of cough) usually requires the appointment of neuroleptics, hypnotherapy and is carried out in conjunction with psychoneurologists. In the presence of compulsive-derivative type disorders, there is experience in using slow-growing doses of clofelin. Treatment requires usually considerable time (many months), although in some cases the cough can suddenly disappear and begin again (in some cases in the form of obsessive sneezing).

V.K. Tajenko , Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Ntszz Ramna , Moscow

Coauthor, editor and medical expert - Maksimov Alexander Alekseevich.

Last update date: 20.04.2021

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Content:

How to treat a tightening cough Causes of tightening cough in children What to do with a lap cough in a child

If the kashel in a child does not pass more than three weeks in a row, then we are dealing with a protracted cough. In children, it proceeds harder than in adults, since children's mucosa is more sensitive and becomes more irritated when coughing.

How to treat a tightening cough

If it is not treated, it can go to bronchitis or pneumonia, so you need to be attentive and competently pick up medicines. It is not necessary to engage in self-medication and without appointing a doctor to use antibiotics with a protracted cough in a child - they can not only help, but also have a negative effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract). However, one should not be rushed to another extreme - to use folk remedies for the treatment of a protracted cough in children: warming up, inhalation over hot potatoes, herbal bums and rinsing throats. You need to consult a doctor to get an adequate therapy scheme. Also, if necessary, it is possible to use preparations of plant origin. However, before starting the treatment of cough, it is necessary to find out its cause.

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Causes of tightening cough in children

To know what to treat a tightening cough in a child, it is important to understand what kind of causative agent he was called. This state is often provoked by non-bacteria or viruses, but for household reasons. Below we led the most common.

A tightening cough in a child can be caused by serious diseases like bronchitis, cough or pneumonia - and in each case it will be needed its treatment tactics.

In addition, the protracted barking cough is sometimes an allergic nature, develops against the background of an unfavorable environmental situation, arises on the basis of stress or due to gastroesophageal reflux - it is a violation of digestion, in which food along with gastric juice falls back to the esophagus, which provokes a cough attack .

Treatment of protracted cough in a child

Sometimes the reasons for the appearance of a lathe cough in a child without a temperature are quite harmless and it is easy to get rid of them. For example, it is too dry and warm air in an apartment or a large amount of dust, who have settled overnight on soft toys.

One of the main reasons for a protracted cough is a high sensitivity of cough receptors against the background of the selection of sputum after transferred bronchitis, colds, ORVI or influenza. In this situation, the child as a whole feels good, but still coughing. Particularly strong attacks occur after active games in the fresh air, sports or, let's say, inhalation of cold air.

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What to do with a lap cough in a child

If a tightening dry or wet cough in a child is observed in the process of respiratory therapy after the respiratory disease, it is important to follow certain recommendations to successfully cure it.

  • To walk with the child more often, giving preference to leisurely walks in the park or in the forest and avoiding too moving games.
  • Let's kid a lot of medium temperature fluid. If he does not like the water, then suggest juices, compotes, kisins, tea with honey and lemon, milk and other famous folk remedies instead of it.
  • Make sure that during the treatment of a wet protracted cough in a child, the air in the apartment was not dry: it is necessary to make wet cleaning more often and (or) include an air humidifier.
  • Arrange long bathing in a warm bath - it helps in the fight both dry and with wet (or as it is also called "wet") cough.
  • Pick up an effective cough syrup, which can be taken throughout the process of recovery.

Since all chemicals from a protracted cough in children, including antibiotics, cannot be taken longer than 10 days due to the risk of side effects, you can use plant syrups. Such is the syrup from cough Dr. Mom ®which has 10 medicinal herbs and does not contain alcohol. It is suitable for children from 3 years old. Cough syrup doctor mom ®You can take up to three weeks in a row, and, that is important, his pleasant taste really likes the children, so you don't have to run for them in the apartment with a spoon in your hand.

Cough syrup doctor mom ®It has an integrated effect: Mulitatic, bronchhalytic, expectorant and anti-inflammatory.

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The information in this article is referenced and does not replace the professional consultation of the doctor. For the diagnosis and treatment of treatment, refer to a qualified specialist.

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Residual cough in children and how to treat him?

Among all the symptoms of a cold, children and their moms, perhaps, do not like cough most: because of him, the baby loses sleep and appetite, feels the decline of strength and even a violation of the brain circulation.

Cough - This is not a disease, but a symptom of diseases such as cough, croup, ARVI, influenza, bronchitis, asthma, problems with metabolism and digestion, as well as many others. Therefore, before starting to fight the cough and decide how to treat cough in a child and how to facilitate the cough in a child, it is necessary to find his cause.

Cough - what is it?

During the cough, the receptors of pulmonary fabric, larynx, bronchi, throats are irritated. As a result of this irritation, a sharp exhalation occurs to purify the respiratory system from mucus, dust, sputum and other unnecessary particles. That is why swallowing (10-15 times a day, most often - in the morning) The kids are normal - so the child's body cleans the larynx and the trachea from foreign presences.

Causes of cough for diseases

Cough is a protective reaction of the body. The reasons for its appearance may be as follows:

  • ORVI;
  • diseases of the respiratory system;
  • the presence of worms;
  • heart defects and other cardiovascular pathology;
  • pathology of intestines, stomach, esophagus;
  • allergies;
  • asthma;
  • stress, excitement;
  • adenoids, problems associated with the nasopharynk;
  • ingress of foreign bodies in the larynx, trachea or bronchi;
  • Irritating factors - Gare, dust, cigarette smoke, dry or hot air, cosmetics;
  • Breasts can cough due to jerking or because of too fast food.

When does the cough require special attention to the doctor?

  • When coughing, when a suffocation occurs, dry cough in children, a strong, incessant cough. It usually happens if the baby swallowed a particle of toys, food or something else, as well as in the infectious nature of cough (with cough, diphtheria, false croup);
  • When coughing with wheezing and gathering: such cough is heard from afar and most often occurs at night, closer to the morning;
  • If the child has blood, greenish sputtering in the child's wet cough;
  • If the cough accompanies an increase in temperature above 38 degrees and long-term preservation of high temperature (more than 3 days);
  • If the cough does not stop more than three weeks;
  • Complaints of chest pain.

When you need to immediately cause an ambulance?

  • If, in addition to cough, the child holds a high temperature;
  • If the cough appeared unexpectedly and does not stop at any way;
  • If the space is drawn between the ribs and the clavicle, while shortness of breath occurs;
  • If during the cough in the child there is a dizziness and a violation of consciousness, the formation or pale of the skin.

How to shoot a kola attack from a child, how to stop the cough in a child at night?

If the couch attack suddenly suddenly, it is characterized by a strong barking sound and a rheron is difficult to breathe - urgently call an ambulance. To help the baby before arriving soon - turn on the hot water in the bathroom and close the door: hot wet pairs will help relieve breathing.

If the coughing attack arose because of a cold and just prevents the baby to fall asleep - let him drink a little warm milk with honey or soda.

What could be cough and under what diseases it arises

Spicy cough

It happens when infecting the respiratory tract of viruses (laryngitis, false croup, rinofaring, tracheitis, pneumonia, bronchitis). It starts in a throat, a kola's cough in a child with dry sound; Wet or little, or not at all. A few days later goes into wet, the wet is moving, it becomes easier.

Spastic cough

It happens when asthma, obstructive bronchitis. First there are wheezing, then a long exhalation occurs and cough with a whistle in a child. Similar cough occurs when a foreign body hit in the respiratory tract.

Load cough (lasts more than 2 weeks)

It happens after the passionate tranchit or bronchitis (when too much sputum remains in bronchi), with increased almonds and adenoids, long smoking. In this case, the nasopharynx receptors are irritated by mucus, which flows from the nose. This is a superficial cough, most often such cough in the morning in the child occurs if he sleeps on his back.

Recurrent cough

It happens during asthma (as a reaction to an allergen) or after transferred bronchitis. This is a wet cough, which does not last more than 2 weeks.

Long, permanent, frequent cough in a child

It happens in chronic diseases of the respiratory system (fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, pleurisy). This cough is always present, putting it weaker, then stronger. In the morning and in the period of exacerbation, most often enhanced and is wet, after the cleansing, it subsides a little. For tuberculosis, a cough is characterized, passing from low on high sound. Cough with pain in the side when inhaling often points to the pleurisy.

Night cough

Cough at night the child happens during asthma (often arises in the morning). When heartburn and reflux (throwing the contents of the stomach in the esophagus), the cough can happen before vomiting in a child: in this case, consult with a gastroenterologist, which products should be excluded from the diet of the baby; Night cough can also be disturbed with adenoids.

Psycho Cashel

It happens during stress and only during the day. For such cough is characterized by an opening attack, and the cough itself is dry, with a "metallic" sound. It stops if you start talking to the child, such a cough does not occur during meals. In families with a hyperopic, where parents are constantly experiencing a child and talk about health problems, such a cough is found quite often.

Allergic cough in a child

Symptoms of such cough are manifested only at contact with the allergen. When leaving the zone where the allergen is present, the cough is almost immediately terminated.

How to cure cough in a child?

Different types and causes of cough require different approaches to therapy. Therefore, before you treat the cough in a child, it is necessary to understand - to what impact: on the mucous membrane of the bronchi, on the sputum itself or on the cough center, which is in the brain. If you decide to take your own responsibility treatment of cough in children - try to start to figure out how different groups of cough are working.

How preparations work

  • Opioids (possess a narcotic action) suppress cough, "turning off" cough center; contraindicated for children are limited to adults;
  • Combined nonarcotic drugs: Through the cough reflex; Used for children very limited, because may contribute to the development of infection or pneumonia (due to the "fearing" of lungs and violations of their ventilation);
  • Dry cough in a child than to treat: Mukolithics, expectorant (drugs that dilute wet); They help to soften flipping off, clean the respiratory tract from mucus;
  • Moisturizing aerosols, inhalation: Applied with a dry cough to reduce dryness and irritation in the respiratory tract, to make a sputum less viscous, stimulate expectoration, have an anti-inflammatory effect when using essential oils and herbs; efficiently work in a complex with an alkaline drink (mineral water with milk, milk with soda);
  • Wet cough in a child than to treat: In order to get rid of sputum faster, it is necessary to get ridicular warm drinks (morse, tea, alkaline mineral water) and sufficient activity (the movement will contribute to the disheve of the sputum), as well as walks in the fresh air;
  • Residual cough in a child How to treat: For the treatment of residual cough, not drugs are usually prescribed, but physiotocreders. If you prefer to do it yourself - a good effect will give a visit to the salt cave or the purchase of a homely salt lamp.
  • Antibiotics with kolas in children: Used exclusively in the presence of a microbial infection (for example, with bronchitis or pneumonia, or if the infection has joined the complication); In viral infections, antibiotics will not help, but only harm;
  • Broncholitiki : Apply solely when obstructive bronchitis and asthma.

Cough with a cold, a child's cough without a temperature, a strong cough in a child: what to treat?

When coughing, arising against the backdrop of a cold (ORVI, influenza), it is better to start with the use of plant agents - herbal decractions that contribute to the disheve of sputum (mother-and-stepmother, a richness, ninewood, the root of Altea, the plantain). At the same time, the child needs abundant warm (not hot!) Drink. Cranberry or sea buckthorn juice, tea with raspberry, lime, honey, will help excellently. Well helps with a cold cough black radish with honey, anise droplets, thermopsis, licorice root. However, these funds can be used only after the 3-year-old age of the child.

If a child is allergic, one should be especially careful, acquiring the finished remedy in the pharmacy, since expectorant drugs with active alkaloid substances and saponins are able to cause not only the urticaria, but also larynx swelling, and laryngospasm. A child who does not add to allergies, such drugs will help faster to get rid of sputum.

If after three days the cough still remains dry, the doctor is likely to prescribe a combined means having an anti-inflammatory effect (preparations with a valid fengirid). However, such drugs cannot be applied for a long time, because They contribute to the strong sputum products and the "fearing" of the lungs. Therefore, as soon as the cough becomes wet - they must immediately cancel.

Dangerous:

  • At the same time (one day), give a child an expectorant (mercolitic) and an antitussive preparation;
  • independently use antibiotics and medicines for the expansion of bronchi;
  • If the child does not have a cough for a long time and treatment does not give results for 4-5 days, to continue it independently.
The child has no dry cough for a long time - what do you need to know to get rid of the problem?

Published: July 16 2020

When a child does not have a dry cough for a long time, parents start nervous, and therefore they often make mistakes in treatment. At the first stage, in order to maximize the baby and not allow complications to make complications, you should access the doctor as soon as possible and fulfill all the recommendations prescribed by it.

Types of cough

Of course, a dry cough in a child does not arise simply, without reasons. If the baby poured a couple of times a day, there is nothing to worry about. It is absolutely natural. But when the cough becomes strong, it continues for a long time, it's time to beat the alarm and call for help from experts.

In its nature, the cough is divided into two main types:

  • wet - it is also called productive, since a spilot appears, this is a viscous substance of a transparent or pale yellow color, it is possible to determine the causative agent of the disease and appoint adequate treatment;
  • Dry - this species is quite complex in treatment, often just such a cough is not a child for a long time, which causes anxiety from parents, the reasons for its occurrence can be different.

Often the cough becomes a residual phenomenon after transferring a cold or inflammatory disease. He arises because the parents interrupted the medicinal therapy too early, or significantly reduced the dosage of drugs. As a result, such cough does not take place for a long time in a child and can last for several weeks. At the same time, he delivers great discomfort, worsens the quality of the life of the baby, makes him restless, irritable and nervous. Often because of the sudden attacks, the child cannot fall asleep for a long time, which entails lack of sleep, problems with attention, scattered, lack of appetite, physical lethargy, generally undermines his immunity.

Causes of the appearance of dry cough in a child

Causes of the appearance of dry cough in a child

To effectively deal with this ailment, first of all it will be necessary to determine what will have to deal with. If a child does not have a dry cough for a long time, or periodically, a mocryt appears during coughing, it should be more attentive to listen and determine its shape. It may be cough:

  • The lame - often during cough attacks in a child, you can hear broaching wheezing, which often indicates the viral nature of the disease and testifies to the defeat of the larynx and trachea;
  • hoarse - as a rule, it indicates chronic pathology of the lungs, may indicate the development of bronchial asthma, in addition, such cough can cause mechanical damage to the mucous membrane;
  • Night - he appears at the sleeping baby, when he lies on his back, this happens because the mucus accumulates in the pulmonary ducts, as a rule, such a cough occurs in children with bronchial asthma;
  • A vomit - such a cough is manifested by attacks, it is usually strong enough, characterized by the existence of a large amount of sputum, due to the need to intercept the breath of the child cannot cope with the coughing attack, because the sputter is in the stomach, and this process often provokes a vomit reflex.

When a child does not pass a dry cough for a long time, the reasons for this phenomenon can be:

Features of the microclimate indoors. The optimal air humidity for the kid is at the level of 60-70%. When this indicator decreases, the mucosa of the throat begins to rehabilitate, annoying, which provokes the development of cough. The same reaction occurs if there is too stuffy in the room, it smokes, there are many dust surfaces in it.

  • Acute bronchitis. Often, this disease is accompanied by the attacks of a strong cough. As a rule, it enhances closer to the night, because of which the baby is capable of having strongly. It is also possible to determine the cough, which occurred due to bronchitis, is also possible by body temperature - it rises to 38-39 degrees.
  • Inflammatory throat diseases, such as laryngitis or pharyngitis. It is possible to identify pathology data in several characteristic features. First of all, the mucous larynium swells strongly, an unpleasant response appears in the throat, a ticking sensation, the voice becomes low, sometimes disappears at all.
  • Whooping cough. Common disease among children. It is often confused with a cold or allergies, since the primary symptoms are sufficient similar to the dry cough, an increase in body temperature, weakness. But with a cough, the child does not pass a dry cough for a long time, its attacks become more frequent and intense.
  • Allergic reaction. If the baby was in the field of Allergen's action, then he may have a dry cough. You can distinguish an allergic cough from other diseases by concomitant features that appear as a result of the action of the stimulus: the tear of the eyes, the course of the nose, sneezing, itching, the appearance of crimson spots on the skin, redness of the face.
  • Stressful situation, nervous overvoltage. Sometimes, when the cough does not take place for a long time in a child, it may indicate an unstable psycho-emotional state of the kid. The impetus to the development of stress and depression can be a constant nervous or physical overvoltage, a heavy atmosphere in the family, frequent quarrels, problems with peers, and the like.

When the child appears, cough, especially if it does not pass for a long time, should not be engaged in self-diagnosis and self-medication. To avoid serious consequences for the health of the baby, please contact your doctor. The specialist will appoint the necessary types of research, on the basis of the results obtained, will determine the cause of cough and select the most appropriate treatment regimen.

Methods of treating cough

Methods of treating cough

If the cough does not pass for a child for a long time, then the scheme of his treatment is selected, based on the cause of the occurrence of the ailment. In this case, we can talk about several therapy variants.

  • Medical treatment. Depending on the causative agent and the cause of cough, the doctor can recommend the most effective drugs to eliminate it. For example, if the cough arose as a response of an organism on an allergen, it will eliminate it to receive antihistamine preparations (they block the sensitivity of the receptors). With bronchitis, the most effective treatment option is the appointment of antibiotics. The earlier start taking medication, the faster the disease will be able to defeat.
  • Inhalation. When the child does not pass a dry cough for a long time, it is easy to relieve inhalation of wet air couples. They can be carried out using medicinal solutions that penetrate directly into the trachea and pulmonary paths, contribute to the discharge of sputum, or with the tincture of herbs, the addition of essential oils - they soften and moisturize the mucous throat, they effectively remove swelling, and small cracks are effectively removed.
  • Rinse throat. If we are talking about dry cough, which arises due to the inflammation of the larynx against the background of laryngitis or pharyngitis, a variety of rinsing will help facilitate the course of the disease. For example, with shepherd grains, with sea water or soda. Alcohol drugs in this case are better not to use, because they can cause an additionally irritation and aggravate the problem. Also, to facilitate the state, we can recommend pupinteers and tablets for resorption containing vegetable oils (for example, eucalyptus).
  • Massage. Little kids to remove cough attacks and facilitating the state It is recommended to carry out a massage. Even the lungs of stroking circular movements on the back will be sufficient. It will significantly accelerate the detection of sputum, will help the baby calm down and fall asleep.

Since in most cases, the cough is a concomitant symptom of ORVI or influenza, then pediatricians in the recovery program of children often include drops or spray Derinat. This is a comprehensive drug that:

  • struggles with viruses, preventing them in reproduction;
  • Strengthens and restores damaged nasal mucosa and throat, due to which the probability of penetration of secondary infection into the body and the development of complications is reduced;
  • Supports the natural immunity of the child, helps strengthen the natural protection of the body.

The importance of Derinat droplets is that they help relieve recovery and at the same time reduce the likelihood of complications. You can take them from children from birth, and adults, the reception scheme is quite simple and described in detail in the instructions.

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